Slut-shaming

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Slut shaming (also hyphenated, as slut-shaming) is a concept in human sexuality. It is a neologism used to describe the act of making a person, especially a woman or girl, feel guilty or inferior for certain sexual behaviors, circumstances, or desires that deviate from traditional or orthodox gender expectations, or that which may be considered to be contrary to natural or religious law. Some examples of circumstances where women are "slut-shamed" include violating accepted dress codes by dressing in sexually provocative ways, requesting access to birth control,[1][2][3] having premarital or casual sex, or being raped or otherwise sexually assaulted (which is known as victim blaming).[4]

Definitions and characteristics[edit]

Slut shaming is defined by many as a process in which women are attacked for their transgression of accepted codes of sexual conduct,[5] i.e., of admonishing them for behavior or desires that are more sexual than society finds acceptable.[6] Emily Bazelon says that slut shaming is "retrograde, the opposite of feminist. Calling a girl a slut warns her that there's a line: she can be sexual but not too sexual."[7]

Many have stated that slut shaming is used against women by both men and women.[8] Jessica Ringrose has argued that it functions among women as a way of sublimating sexual jealousy "into a socially acceptable form of social critique of girls' sexual expression."[5] Some also use this term to describe what they call victim blaming for rape and other sexual assault, e.g. by stating that the crime was caused (either in part or in full) by the woman wearing revealing clothing or previously acting in a forward, sexual manner, before not consenting to sex,[4] and thereby absolving the perpetrator of guilt.

Men and women alike are culprits of "slut-shaming": The study "Birds of a feather? Not when it comes to sexual permissiveness," published in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, notes that sexually lenient individuals are judged more negatively than non-permissive peers, which places those who are more permissive at risk of social isolation.[9] The researchers from Cornell University found that similar sentiments appeared in nonsexual, same-sex friendship context as well.[9] The researchers had college women read a vignette describing an imaginary female peer, "Joan," then rate their feelings about her personality.[9] To one group of women, Joan was described as having two lifetime sexual partners; to another group, she had had twenty partners.[10] The study found that women—even women who were more promiscuous themselves—rated the Joan with 20 partners as "less competent, emotionally stable, warm, and dominant than the Joan who'd only boasted two".[9][10]

An article in the New York Daily News described yet another mode of "slut-shaming": in meme form.[11] Young girls, and increasingly boys, have begun to generate memes on Tumblr and Facebook to offer mock – and often insulting – advice to their peers.[11] For example: "Hey Girls. Did you know? That you spread Nutella...Not your legs," reads one such viral post.[11]

In the media[edit]

Two women protesting about victim-blaming and slut-shaming at New York City's SlutWalk in October 2011.

The SlutWalk protest march started in Toronto in response to an incident where a Toronto Police officer told a group of students that they could avoid sexual assault by not dressing like "sluts".[4][12][13]

The term has since been used when describing the comments of Rush Limbaugh during the Rush Limbaugh–Sandra Fluke controversy.[14] It is speculated that the controversy that erupted may have long-term effects on the incidence of slut-shaming in broadcast media.[how?][3]

James Miller, editor-in-chief, for the Ludwig von Mises Institute of Canada wrote a controversial article defending slut shaming.[15] The article was later taken down, but still received criticism from some libertarians, such as Gina Luttrell of Thoughts on Liberty, an all-female libertarian blog.[16]

Additionally, the performance apparel and dance-moves of pop-star Miley Cyrus at the 2013 VMA Awards created "slut-shaming" uproar.[17] Her performance of "We Can't Stop," which was performed as a duet with Robin Thicke's "Blurred Lines," was called "lewd, grotesque and shameful."[17] Notably, The Washington Post noted the lack of criticism towards Robin Thicke: "While Cyrus was condemned for grinding on Thicke, very little criticism has been laid on the singer himself for his role in the performance."[17]

In literature[edit]

There are several instances in literature in which women are degraded or admonished for their promiscuity. In these novels, men are largely excluded from the public outrage that their female counterparts endure for engaging in relationships deemed socially inappropriate:

  • In Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy, the title character has a highly public affair with the affluent Count Vronsky: Anna Karenina is rejected by her friends, while the reputation of Count Vronsky remains more or less untarnished.[18]

Attempts to stop the practice[edit]

Members of The Arts Effect All-Girl Theater Company have developed a play, "Slut," in which they address the damaging impact of slut shaming and slut culture.[19][20] The creators note that their play "is a call to action – a reminder" that slut-shaming is happening every day, almost everywhere.[20] "Slut" is inspired by real-life experiences of 14–17 year-old girls from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania.[20] The play was shown at the 2013 New York Fringe Festival.[20][21]

In her statement on the production, and of slut-shaming in general, author of Slut! Growing Up Female with a Bad Reputation, Leora Tanenbaum writes: "A teenage girl today is caught in an impossible situation. She has to project a sexy image and embrace, to some extent, a 'slutty' identity. Otherwise, she risks being mocked as an irrelevant prude. But if her peers decide she has crossed an invisible, constantly shifting boundary and has become too 'slutty,' she loses all credibility. Even if she was coerced into sex, her identity and reputation are taken from her. Indeed, the power to tell her own story is wrested from her. The Arts Effect's SLUT written by Katie Cappiello vividly represents this irrational, harmful, terrible circumstance...This play is the most powerful and authentic representation of the sexual double standard I have ever seen."[20]

Some believe that school dress codes are a form of slut shaming, and are unfair to girls and women.[22] Some believe that these dress codes “violate Title IX, the federal law that ensures non-discrimination in educational environments.”[23] This idea has been backed up with a hashtag: #iammorethanadistraction.[24] On Monday, September 22, 2014, “about 100 pupils walked out of Bingham high school in South Jordan, Utah.”[25] Students staged a walkout because more than a dozen girls were turned away from a homecoming dance for wearing dresses which violated the dress code rules.[26] “School staff allegedly lined up girls against a wall as they arrived and banished about two dozen for having dresses which purportedly showed too much skin and violated the rules.” It is believed that this act was awkward and humiliating towards the female students, which spawned the walkouts.[27]

Gay male slut-shaming[edit]

One opinion on slut-shaming in men is that calling a man a "slut" is not as pejorative as it is in using the word against women, and that the term has more of a positive connotation with men.[28]

Some gay males see the behaviors which are said to encourage slut-shaming as actually being positive.[29]

Some gay rights activists have said that environments which have slut-shaming are more likely to lead to gay men engaging in practices which lead to increased rates of HIV infection.[30]

There are reports that gay men who use the drug Truvada to lower risk of contracting HIV encounter slut-shaming for being at risk of contracting HIV.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lamb, Sharon (27 June 2008). "The 'Right' Sexuality for Girls". Chronicle of Higher Education 54 (42): B14–B15. ISSN 0009-5982. (subscription required (help)). In Dilemmas of Desire: Teenage Girls Talk About Sexuality (Harvard University Press, 2002), Deborah L. Tolman complained that we've "desexualized girls' sexuality, substituting the desire for relationship and emotional connection for sexual feelings in their bodies." Recognizing that fact, theorists have used the concept of desire as a way to undo the double standard that applauds a guy for his lust, calling him a player, and shames a girl for hers, calling her a slut. 
  2. ^ Albury, Kath; Crawford, Kate (18 May 2012). "Sexting, consent and young people's ethics: Beyond Megan's Story". Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 26 (3): 463–473. doi:10.1080/10304312.2012.665840. Certainly the individualizing admonishment to 'think again' offers no sense of the broader legal and political environment in which sexting might occur, or any critique of a culture that requires young women to preserve their 'reputations' by avoiding overt demonstrations of sexual knowingness and desire. Further, by trading on the propensity of teenagers to feel embarrassment about their bodies and commingling it with the anxiety of mobiles being ever present, the ad becomes a potent mix of technology fear and body shame. 
  3. ^ a b Legge, Nancy J.; DiSanza, James R.; Gribas, John; Shiffler, Aubrey (2012). ""He sounded like a vile, disgusting pervert..." An Analysis of Persuasive Attacks on Rush Limbaugh During the Sandra Fluke Controversy". Journal of Radio & Audio Media 19 (2): 173–205. doi:10.1080/19376529.2012.722468. It is also possible that the Limbaugh incident has turned "slut-shaming," or other similar attacks on women, into a "Devil-term." It may be possible that Limbaugh's insults were so thoroughly condemned that he and others (such as Bill Maher) will have a more difficult time insulting women who are not virgins, or attacking them in other sexist ways. 
  4. ^ a b c McCormack, Clare; Prostran, Nevena (2012). "Asking for It". International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (3): 410–414. doi:10.1080/14616742.2012.699777. 
  5. ^ a b Jessica Ringrose (21 August 2012). Postfeminist Education?: Girls and the Sexual Politics of Schooling. Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-136-25971-5. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Denise Du Vernay. Feminism, Sexism, and the Small Screen. pp. 163–182.  in Joseph J. Foy; Timothy M. Dale (24 April 2013). Homer Simpson Ponders Politics: Popular Culture as Political Theory. University Press of Kentucky. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-8131-4151-0. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Emily Bazelon (19 February 2013). Sticks and Stones: Defeating the Culture of Bullying and Rediscovering the Power of Character and Empathy. Random House Publishing Group. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-679-64400-2. Retrieved 16 May 2013.  Emphasis in original.
  8. ^ Belisa Vranich, Psy.D.; Holly Eagleson (1 July 2010). Boys Lie: How Not to Get Played. HCI. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7573-1364-6. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d Vrangalova, Z.; Bukberg, R. E.; Rieger, G. (19 May 2013). "Birds of a feather? Not when it comes to sexual permissiveness". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. doi:10.1177/0265407513487638. 
  10. ^ a b Hess, Amanda (7 June 2013). "Slut-shaming study: Women discriminate against promiscuous women, but so do men". Slate.com. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c "'Slut-shaming' trend, sweeping Internet, adds meme form to adolescent cyber bullying". NY Daily News. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma (October 2011). "Slut-shaming, girl power and 'sexualisation': thinking through the politics of the international SlutWalks with teen girls". Gender and Education 24 (3): 333–343. doi:10.1080/09540253.2011.645023. 
  13. ^ SlutWalk Toronto
  14. ^ Ball, Krystal (3 February 2012). "Boycott Rush". The Blog. Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 December 2012. This type of despicable behavior is part and parcel of a time-worn tradition of Slut-Shaming. When women step out line, they are demeaned and degraded into silence. If you say Herman Cain sexually harassed you, you are a slut. If you say Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas sexually harassed you, you are a slut. 
  15. ^ "Editor-In-Chief of Mises Institute in Canada Advocates "Slut-Shaming" – Kate Andrews". Townhall.com. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Robinson, Elizabeth (5 September 2013). "Misogynists Gonna…Misogynate? (or, More Issues with That Mises.ca Post)". Thoughts on Liberty. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c Post Store. "Miley Cyrus and the issues of slut-shaming and racial condescension – The Washington Post". Articles.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Triska, Zoë (7 October 2013). "9 Female Book Characters Punished For Having Sex". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  19. ^ "NYC Girls Challenge Weiner Campaign: Stop Slut-Shaming | Lauren Hersh". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d e "Why Slut — Slut". Sluttheplay.com. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  21. ^ "Meet the Teen Star of PETA's Latest Controversy. We Love Her. | Love + Sex – Yahoo Shine". Shine.yahoo.com. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014. [dead link]
  22. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  23. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  24. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  25. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  26. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  27. ^ Carroll, Rory. "Students protest 'slut shaming' high school dress codes with mass walkouts". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  28. ^ Clark-Flory, Tracy (9 February 2012). "She called me a “manwhore”". Salon. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  29. ^ A, Saif (April 2013). "GMFA | Gay slut shaming – stop it, stop it right now!". gmfa.org.uk. GFMA. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  30. ^ Turk, Hussain (8 September 2014). "Op-ed: Slut-Shaming Is a Cause of HIV". The Advocate. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  31. ^ Shackford, Scott (8 May 2014). "Truvada: Chill Pill or Party Drug?". reason.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014.