Small Knife Society

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The Small Knife Society (Hsiao-tao-hui) was a secret society active in the area of Shanghai, China, between about 1840 and 1855.[1] Members of the society, rebelling against the Qing dynasty, occupied old Shanghai[2] and many of the surrounding villages.[3] Chinese gentry and merchants took refuge in the British and French concessions, which were regarded as the only safe place. The rebellion was suppressed and the society expelled from Shanghai in February 1855.[2]


  1. ^ Albert Feuerwerker (1970). Chinese Communist Studies of Modern Chinese History. Volume 11 of Harvard East Asian monographs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University East Asian Research Center. ISBN 9780674123014. p. 102–3.
  2. ^ a b Alasdair Moore (2004). La Mortola: In the Footsteps of Thomas Hanbury London: Cadogan Guides. ISBN 9781860111402.
  3. ^ Ruth Hayhoe, Yongling Lu (1996). Ma Xiangbo and the mind of modern China 1840-1939. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9781563248313. pp. 17–18.