Smartphone

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"Smartphones" redirects here. For the song by Trey Songz, see SmartPhones (song).

A smartphone (or smart phone) is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature phones.[1][2][3]

Early smartphones typically combined the features of a mobile phone with those of another popular consumer device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), a media player, a digital camera, and/or a GPS navigation unit. Later smartphones include all of those plus the features of a touchscreen computer, including web browsing, Wi-Fi, and 3rd-party apps.

Currently, about 90% of handset sales worldwide are for devices driven by Google's Android and Apple's iOS mobile operating systems.[4]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized in 1973, and were offered for sale beginning in 1993. The term "smartphone" first appeared in 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88 "Penelope" concept as a Smart Phone.[5][6][7][8][9]

Forerunners[edit]

IBM Simon and charging base (1993[10])

The first mobile phone to incorporate PDA features was an IBM prototype developed in 1992 and demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version of the product was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. The Simon was the first device that can be properly referred to as a "smartphone", even though that term was not yet coined.[6][11] In addition to its ability to make and receive cellular phone calls, Simon was also able to send and receive faxes and e-mails through its touch screen display.

PDAs[edit]

In the late 1990s, many mobile phone users carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, BlackBerry OS or Windows CE/Pocket PC.[1] These operating systems would later evolve into mobile operating systems.

In 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 which became their best-selling phone of that time. It was a palmtop computer-style phone combined with a PDA from HP. In early prototypes, the two devices were fixed together via a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design. When opened, the display was on the inside top surface and with a physical QWERTY keyboard on the bottom. Email and text-based web browsing was provided by the GEOS V3.0 operating system.

In June 1999, Qualcomm released a "CDMA Digital PCS Smartphone" with integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity, known as the "pdQ Smartphone".[12]

In early 2000, the Ericsson R380 was released by Ericsson Mobile Communications,[13] and was the first device marketed as a "smartphone".[14] It combined the functions of a mobile phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA), supported limited web browsing with a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus.[15]

In early 2001, Palm, Inc. introduced the Kyocera 6035, which combined a PDA with a mobile phone and operated on Verizon. It also supported limited web browsing.[16][17]

Smartphones before Android, iOS, and Blackberry, typically ran on Symbian, which was originally developed by Psion. It was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010.

Mass adoption[edit]

In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT Docomo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country. These phones ran on i-mode, which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kbit/s.[18] Unlike future generations of wireless services, NTT Docomo's i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to maximize the slower data speeds available.[19]

The rise of i-mode helped NTT Docomo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001. It was also ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally. This power would wane in the face of the rise of 3G and new phones with advanced wireless network capabilities.[20]

Outside of Japan smartphones were still a rare feature, although throughout the mid-2000s, devices based on Microsoft's Windows Mobile started to gain high popularity among businessmen and businesswomen in the U.S. The BlackBerry later gained mass adoption in the U.S., which in 2006 popularized the term CrackBerry due to its addictive nature.[21] The company first released its GSM BlackBerry 6210, BlackBerry 6220, & BlackBerry 6230 devices in 2003. Also released was the Blackberry 7730 which featured a color screen.[22] In 2006 and 2007, both operating systems were in a large lead in the North American market, although while BlackBerry was popular among both business people and young people, Windows Mobile was only popular in the former.

These successive waves of phone technology allowed users to email, fax and make traditional calls, making it a useful tool for business travelers. As the Blackberry gained customers, less sophisticated users were attracted to its many communication options.

In Europe, Windows Mobile was never a large player in the market, and BlackBerry didn't make a notable impact in the market until around 2008. Symbian was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the mid and late 2000s. This was largely led by Nokia, which has always been a popular brand outside of North America. Initially Nokia's Symbian devices were focused on business, the same way as Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started to make entertainment-focused smartphones, which were popularized by the Nseries. The N95, for instance, had breakthrough multimedia features for its time, and marked the start of a broader market of smartphones within younger people, and not just business. In Asia (except Japan), the trend was similar to Europe's.

Another company that made a breakthrough was the Palm. Although originally PDAs, Palms later turned into business-focused smartphones, largely competing with BlackBerry and Windows Mobile in the U.S. market, and was less popular in Europe and Asia.

All leaders of the 2000s suffered following the release of the iPhone.

iPhone and later[edit]

In 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone, one of the first mobile phones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical for smartphones at the time.[23] 2008 saw the release of the first phone to use Android called the HTC Dream (also known as the T-Mobile G1).[24][25] Android is an open-source platform founded by Andy Rubin and backed by Google.[26][27] Although Android's adoption was relatively slow at first, it started to gain widespread popularity in 2010.

Both of these operating systems led to the drop of the previous leading companies. Microsoft, for instance, started a new OS from scratch, in the form of Windows Phone, which is now the third largest OS. Nokia abandoned Symbian and partnered with Microsoft to use Windows Phone on its smartphones. Palm was bought by Hewlett-Packard, turned into webOS, and later demised. BlackBerry also made a new system from scratch, BlackBerry 10.

The future[edit]

In 2013, the Fairphone company launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing.[28] In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection.[29] In December 2013, the world's first curved-OLED technology smartphones were introduced to the retail market with the sale of the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex models.[30]

Foldable OLED smartphones could be as much as a decade away because of the cost of producing them. There is a relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. As little as a speck of dust can ruin a screen during production. Creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle.[31] Samsung fully foldable phones are expected around 2016 to 2017.[32]

A clear thin layer of crystal glass can be added to small screens like watches and smartphones that make them solar powered. Smartphones could gain 15% more battery life during a typical day. The first smartphones using this technology should arrive in 2015. This screen can also work to receive Li-Fi signals and so can the smartphone camera.[33] The cost of these screens per smartphone is between $2 and $3, much cheaper than most new technology.[34]

Near future smartphones might not have a traditional battery as their sole source of power. Instead, they may pull energy from radio, television, cellular or Wi-Fi signals.[35]

In early 2014, smartphones are beginning to use Quad HD (2K) 2560x1440 on 6" screens with up to 490 ppi which is a significant improvement over Apple's retina display. Quad HD is used in advanced televisions and computer monitors, but with 110 ppi or less on such larger displays.[36]

In 2014, Wi-Fi will continue to become the primary network for smartphones. As these devices do more and more with data and Wi-Fi becomes more prevalent and easier to connect to, Wi-Fi First smartphones service will start to take off.[37][38][39]

In February 2014, some smartphones are dustproof and waterproof up to one-meter underwater depth such as Samsung Galaxy S5, Sony Xperia Z1S and Sony Xperia Z2.[40]

In April 2014, Samsung released Samsung Galaxy K Zoom pocketable smartphone Android KitKat 4.4 with 10x optical zoom 24-240mm (eq. 35mm) fully retractable, 20.7MP, 1/2.3" BSI-CMOS sensor, 1080p/720p/VGA in 60/30fps, but less manual camera control and the image quality par with a sub-$200 camera.[41] Samsung Galaxy K Zoom is slimmer than Samsung Galaxy S4 with the K Zoom being only 15mm thick in most of the body with an additional 4 mm thickness around the lens.[42]

Mobile operating systems[edit]

Android 4.4.2 home screen

Android[edit]

Android is an open-source platform founded in October 2003 by Andy Rubin and backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM, Motorola and Samsung) that form the Open Handset Alliance.[26][27] In October 2008, HTC released the HTC Dream, the first phone to use Android.[24][25] The software suite included on the phone consists of integration with Google's proprietary applications, such as Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML web browser. Android supports the execution of native applications and third-party apps which are available via Google Play, which launched in October 2008 as Android Market. By Q4 2010, Android became the best-selling smartphone platform.

iOS[edit]

Main article: iOS

In 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone, one of the first mobile phones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad as typical for smartphones at the time.[23] In July 2008, Apple introduced its second generation iPhone with a much lower list price and 3G support. Simultaneously, they introduced the App Store, which allowed any iPhone to install third-party native applications. Featuring over 500 applications at launch,[43] the App Store eventually achieved 1 billion downloads in the first year, and 15 billion by 2011.[44][45]

Bada[edit]

Main article: Bada

The Bada operating system for smartphones was announced by Samsung in November 2009.[46][47] The first Bada-based phone was the Samsung Wave S8500, released in June 2010.[48][49][50] Samsung shipped 4.5 million phones running Bada in Q2 of 2011.[51] In 2013, Bada merged with a similar platform called Tizen.

BlackBerry Curve 8900 (2008)

BlackBerry[edit]

Main article: BlackBerry

In 1999, RIM released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. There are 80 million active BlackBerry service subscribers and the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped in September 2012.[52] Most recently, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its name to BlackBerry and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10."[53]

Firefox OS[edit]

The original iPhone (2007)
Main article: Firefox OS

Firefox OS (originally called the boot to gecko project) was demonstrated by Mozilla in February 2012. It was designed to have a complete community based alternative system for mobile devices, using open standards and HTML5 applications. The first commercially available Firefox OS phones were ZTE Open and Alcatel One Touch Fire. As of 2014 more companies have partnered with Mozilla including Panasonic (which is making a smart TV with Firefox OS) and Sony.[54]

Palm OS[edit]

Palm Treo 650 (2004)
Main article: Palm OS

In late 2001, Handspring launched their own Springboard GSM phone module with limIn early 2002, Handspring released the Palm OS Treo smartphone with both a touch screen and a full keyboard. The Treo had wireless web browsing, email, calendar, a contact organizer and mobile third-party applications that could be downloaded or synced with a computer.[55] Handspring was soon acquired by Palm, which released the Treo 600 and continued, though the series eventually took on Windows Mobile. After buying Palm, Inc, in 2011 Hewlett-Packard (HP) finally discontinued its smartphones and tablets production using webOS which is initial developed by Palm, Inc.[56]

Sailfish OS[edit]

Main article: Sailfish OS

The Sailfish OS is based on the Linux kernel and Mer.[57] Additionally Sailfish OS includes a partially or completely proprietary multi-tasking user interface programmed by Jolla. This user interface differentiate Jolla smartphones from others.[58] Sailfish OS is intended to be a system made by many of the MeeGo team, which left Nokia to form Jolla, utilizing funding from Nokia's "Bridge" program which helps establish and support start-up companies formed by ex-Nokia employees.[59][60][61]

Nokia N8 (2010)

Symbian[edit]

Main article: Symbian
HTC Kaiser (2009)

Symbian was originally developed by Psion as EPOC32. It was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010, though the platform never gained popularity or widespread awareness in the U.S., as it did in Europe and Asia. The first Symbian phone, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone, was released in 2000,[62][63] and was the first device marketed as a "smartphone".[64] It combined a PDA with a mobile phone.[65] In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones, with the platform getting abandoned throughout the following few years.[66]

Tizen[edit]

Main article: Tizen

Tizen is a Linux-based operating system for devices, including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, smart TVs, laptops and smart cameras. Tizen is a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) composed of Samsung and Intel among others.

In April 2014, Samsung released the Samsung Gear 2 and the Gear 2 Neo, running Tizen.[67]

Windows Mobile[edit]

Main article: Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. Throughout its lifespan, the operating system was available in both touchscreen and non-touchscreen formats. It was supplied with a suite of applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API and was designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties could develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were eventually purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's brief lifespan.

Windows Phone[edit]

Main article: Windows Phone

In February 2010, Microsoft unveiled Windows Phone 7 with a User Interface inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language", to replace Windows Mobile. Windows Phone 7 integrates with Microsoft services such as Microsoft SkyDrive, Office, Xbox and Bing, as well as non-Microsoft services such as Facebook, Twitter and Google accounts. This software platform runs the Microsoft Mobile smartphones, and has received some positive reception from the technology press and been praised for its uniqueness and differentiation.[68][69][70]

Application stores[edit]

Store 2010 (millions U.S.)[71]
Apple App Store $1782
BlackBerry App World $165
Nokia Ovi Store $105
Google Play $102
Total $2155

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software, computer programs) focused on a single platform. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear.

Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market in October 2008 and RIM's BlackBerry App World in April 2009.

Market share[edit]

Xperia Play, launched in 2011 is a smartphone targeted for gaming.

Smartphone usage[edit]

In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.[72] Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for features phones in early 2013.[73] As of 2013, 65 percent U.S. mobile consumers own smartphones.[74] The European mobile device market as of 2013 is 860 million.[75] In China, smartphones represented more than half of all handset shipments in the second quarter of 2012.[76]

As of November 2011, 27% of all photographs were taken with camera-equipped smartphones.[77] A study conducted in September 2012 concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop.[78] Another study conducted in June 2013 concluded that 56% of American adults now owned a smartphone of some kind. Android and iPhone owners account for half of the cell phone user population. Higher income adults and those under age 35 lead the way when it comes to smartphone ownership.[79]

Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013 (up 38% from 2012's 725 million) while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013 (up from 42% in 2012).[80]

By manufacturer[edit]

Samsung smartphones with Android OS

In 2013, Samsung had 31.3 percent shipment market share, a slight increase from 30.3 percent in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3 percent, a decrease from 18.7 percent in 2012. Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5 percent each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40 percent, the same as the previous years figure. Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9 percent; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36 to 92 percent.[81]

By operating system[edit]

The market has been dominated by the Android operating system since 2010. Android's market share (measured by units shipment) rose from 33.2% in Q4 2011 to 78.1% of the market in Q4 2013. Apple managed to oscillate their market share between 15% to 20.9% during the same period. BlackBerry's market share fell from 14.3% in Q4 2011 to 0.6% in Q4 2013. MS Windows Mobile market share rose from 1.5% to 3% during the same time frame.[82]

As of the end of Q3 2013, Android was the most popular operating system, with a 81.9% market share, followed by iOS with 12.1%, Windows Phone with 3.6% and BlackBerry with 1.8%.[83][84]

Historical sales figures (in millions of units)[edit]

Year Android (Google) BlackBerry (former RIM, now Blackberry) iOS (Apple) Linux (other than Android) Palm/WebOS (Palm/HP) Symbian (Nokia) Asha Full Touch (Nokia) Windows Mobile/Phone (Microsoft) Bada (Samsung) Other
2007[85] 11.77 3.3 11.76 1.76 77.68 14.7
2008[85] 23.15 11.42 11.26 2.51 72.93 16.5
2009[86] 6.8 34.35 24.89 8.13 1.19 80.88 15.03
2010[87] 67.22 47.45 46.6 111.58 12.38
2011[88] 219.52 51.54 89.26 93.41 8.77 14.24
2012[89] 451.62 34.21 130.13 16.94 47.20
2013[89] 758.72 18.61 150.79 30.84 8.82

Issues[edit]

Environmental[edit]

Obtaining the resources required to create smartphones involves the mining of minerals such as coltan, which are toxic to humans and wildlife.[90] Other raw materials, such as oils, copper, plastics, and solvents, have the potential to contaminate both the soil and groundwater.[90] Smartphones also contain toxic chemicals such as lead, bromine, chlorine, mercury, and cadmium.[91]

The improper recycling of used smartphones damages the environment.[92] Mobile phones can contain dangerous chemicals such as antimony, cadmium, copper, lead, arsenic, nickel and zinc,[90] which can run off into surrounding water bodies or seep into soil contaminating wildlife and drinking water.[93]

Worker conditions[edit]

The capacitors in electronics use minerals mined in developing countries. Mines in Rwanda, for example, have been associated with human rights and labor rights violations.[94] Workers, including children, have been forced to work at gunpoint while mining for smartphone materials.[94]

The electronics soldering in smartphones require tin, 30% of which comes from the Indonesian islands of Bangka and Belitung. The tin extraction process has been identified as environmentally destructive and, as of September 2013, children are employed in hazardous conditions to extract tin.[95] Modern Westerners typically disapprove routine employment of people under 16 or so, imagining they have better options.

Social[edit]

Main article: Smartphone addiction

A University of Southern California study found that the unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common amongst owners of smartphones.[96] A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect sleep cycles.[97]

Legal[edit]

Main article: Smartphone wars

A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface—and possibly the hardware—of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS.

Security[edit]

Smartphone malware is more easily distributed through application stores that have minimal or no security mechanisms.[98][99] Often malware is hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through 3rd party app stores.[100][101] Malware risk also comes from what's known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated.[102]

One out of three robberies involve the theft of a mobile phone. An online petition urging that smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices is underway.[103]

In order to minimize the chances of being a victim of theft of mobile devices, there have been several apps created to help those out that may be in a dangerous situation. There are now apps that may aid in personal security by providing immediate assistance.

Disturbing sleep[edit]

Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep due to the bright screen light affecting melatonin levels and sleep cycles.[104][105][106][107]

Other Terms[edit]

"Phablet", a portmanteau of the words phone and tablet, describes smartphones with larger screens.[108][109]

"Superphone" is also used by some companies to market phones with unusually large screens and other expensive features.[110][111]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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