|— City —|
|• Mayor||Jasna Avramović (PZS)|
|• Municipality||484 km2 (187 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+381 26|
Smederevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Смедерево, pronounced [smêderevo]) is a city in Serbia, on the right bank of the Danube, about 45 km downstream of the capital Belgrade. According to official results of the 2011 census, the city has a population of 108,209. It is the administrative center of the Podunavlje District.
Its history starts in the 1st century BC, with the conquerings of the Roman Empire, when there existed a town called Vinceia. The modern city traces its roots back to the late Middle Ages when it was the capital (1430–1439 and 1444–1459) of the last independent Serbian state before the Ottoman conquest.
The Roman Empire conquered Vinceia in the 1st century BC. It was organized into Moesia, later Moesia Superior, and in the administrative reforms of Diocletian (244–311) it was part of the Diocese of Moesia, then the Diocese of Dacia. It was a principal town of Moesia Superior, near the confluence of Margus and Brongus (Morava rivers, between Mons Aureus and Margum).
The modern founder of the city was the Serbian prince Đurađ Branković in the 15th century, who built Smederevo Fortress in 1430 as the new Serbian capital. Smederevo was the residence of Branković and the capital of Serbia from 1430 until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a siege lasting two months.
Sanjak of Smederevo
In 1444, in accordance with the terms of the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan returned Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, who was allied to John Hunyadi. On 22 August 1444 the Serb prince peacefully took possession of the evacuated town.
When Hunyadi broke the peace treaty, Đurađ Branković remained neutral. Serbia became a battleground between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans, and the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time.
In 1454 Sultan Mehmed II besieged Smederevo and devastated Serbia. The town was liberated by Hunyadi. In 1459 Smederevo was again captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković. The town became a Turkish border-fortress, and played an important part in Ottoman–Hungarian Wars until 1526. Because of its strategic location, Smederevo was gradually rebuilt and enlarged. For a long period, the town was the capital of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
In autumn 1476 a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans. They built three wooden counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to withdraw.
During the First Serbian Uprising in 1806, the city became the temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of the Praviteljstvujušči sovjet, a government headed by Dositej Obradović. The first basic school was founded in 1806.
During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces, who stored ammunition in the fortress. On June 5, 1941 a catastrophic explosion severely damaged the fortress and killed thousands of people in the city.
The municipality of Smederevo includes the following villages (population according to 2002 census given in brackets):
Smederevo has a history of heavy industry and manufacturing. The city is home to the only operating steel mill in the country. The steel mill, previously known as Sartid, was privatized and sold to U.S. Steel in 2003 for $23 million. Following the global economic crisis, U.S. Steel sold the plant to the government of Serbia for a symbolic $1 to avoid closing the plant. The plant was renamed Železara Smederevo and employs about 5,400 workers.
The "Milan Blagojević" home appliance factory is the second most important factory in the city. Smederevo is also an agricultural area, with significant production of fruit and vines. However, the large agricultural combine "Godomin" has been in financial difficulty since the 1990s and is almost defunct as of 2005. The grape variety known as Smederevka is named after the city. The "Ishrana" factory is an important supplier of bakery products in northern and eastern Serbia.
U.S.-Dutch consortium Comico Oil planned to build a $250 million oil refinery in the industrial zone of the city in 2012. However, the consortium lost its permit to build the refinery after it failed to meet payment deadlines for the land lease a year later.
In the 2002 census, there was 109,809 residents in the municipality, of which 104,755 were Serbs. The city had population of 77,808, of which 94.47% are ethnic Serbs.
Population through history
- 1805. : 4,000 (estimate)
- 1834. : 3,907
- 1874. : 8,343
- 1884. : 6,600
- 1900. : 7,141
- 1905. : 7,097
- 1910. : 7,411
- 1921. : 8,500
- 1931. : 10,500
- 1941. : 11,500
- 1948. : 14,206
- 1953. : 18,328
- 1961. : 27,182
- 1971. : 40,192
- 1981. : 55,369
- 1991. : 61,990
- 2002. : 62,805
- 2011. : 64,175
The population increased between 2002 and 2008. This increase is most likely because of the large number of Serb refugees and internally displaced persons from Kosovo and Metohija (in 2003, that number was 7,152, not including those who moved permanently to Smederevo since the last census, and those who came to live with their relatives). They settled mostly in urban parts of Smederevo, but also in some suburban settlements such as Radinac, Lipe, Vučak and Petrijevo. The population of three other suburban settlements (Šalinac, Seone, and Udovice) has also risen but that increase has been less substantial than in the above-mentioned settlements.
The latest estimates of internally displaced persons made after 2004, claim that the number of such persons in Smederevo grew from 7,152 to 8,194 in the period of just one year. This happened due to the exodus of the Serb and Roma population from Kosovo following the events of 17 March 2004. Some other estimates claim that the number of these persons is around 10,000.
Seats in the municipal assembly won in the 2012 local elections:
- "Movement for Smederevo" dr Jasna Avramović (citizens group) – 20
- Democratic Party – 12
- Socialist Party of Serbia and United Serbia – 10
- Serbian Progressive Party, New Serbia, Party of United Pensioners of Serbia and Socialist Movement – 9
- "Coalition for better Smederevo" Milan Lukić (citizens group) – 6
- United Regions of Serbia – 5
- Liberal Democratic Party and Serbian Renewal Movement – 4
- Democratic Party of Serbia – 4
Smederevo is twinned with:
- "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in The Republic of Serbia: Ethnicity - Data by municipalities and cities". Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2012. ISBN 978-86-6161-023-3. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
- "p. 317". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-31.
- "p. 1310". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-31.
- Aaron Arrowsmith, A grammar of ancient geography,: compiled for the use of King's College School (1832), p. 108, family of publishers Hansard (London)
- "Serbia buys U.S. Steel plant; Price: $1". CBSNews. 31 January 2012.
- "Comico Oil Wins Permit to Build $250 Million Refinery in Serbia". Bloomberg. 13 March 2012.
- "Serb City Scraps Comico Oil Refinery Project on Deadline". Bloomberg. 5 February 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Smederevo|
- City of Smederevo
- Regional Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments in Smederevo
- Tourist Organization of Smederevo
- Smederevo’s Autumn