Smithsonian trinomial

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Smithsonian trinomials are unique identifiers assigned to archaeological sites in many states in the United States. They are composed of one or two digits coding for the state, typically two letters coding for the county or county-equivalent within the state, and one or more sequential digits representing the order in which the site was listed in that county.[1][2] The Smithsonian Institution developed the site number system in the 1930s and 1940s. (Trinomials are now assigned by the individual states.) The 48 states then in the union were assigned numbers in alphabetical order. Alaska was assigned number 49 and Hawaii was assigned number 50 after those states were admitted to the union. There are no Smithsonian trinomial numbers assigned for the District of Columbia or any United States territories.[3][4]

Most states use trinomials of the form "nnAAnnnn", but some specify a space or dash between parts of the identifier, i.e., "nn AA nnnn" or "nn-AA-nnnn". Some states use variations of the trinomial system. Arizona, California, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island and Vermont use two-letter abbreviations of the state name instead of the Smithsonian number. Alaska uses three-letter abbreviations for USGS map quadrangles in place of the county code. Arizona uses a five-part identifier based on USGS maps, specifying quadrangles, then rectangles within a quadrangle, a sequential number within the rectangle, and a code identifying the agency issuing the sequential number. California uses a three-letter abbreviation for counties. Connecticut and Rhode Island do not use any sub-state codes, with site identifiers consisting of the state abbreviation and a sequential number series for the whole state. Delaware uses a single letter code for counties and adds a block code (A-K) within each county, with sequential numbers for each block. Hawaii uses a four-part identifier, "50" for the state, a two-digit code for the island, then a two-digit code plus a four digit sequential site number for sites on each island.

Archaeological site identification codes used by states[edit]

State Format County or equivalent codes
Alabama 1AAnnnn[5] AA: Alabama County Abbreviation for Archaeological Site Number Designation
Alaska 49‑AAA‑nnnn[6] AAA: Alaska Quad Map
Arizona AZ AA:nn:nn(XXX)[7] AA:nn: Arizona Quad Names and Numbers
Arkansas 3AAnnnn List of counties in Arkansas
California CA‑AAA‑nnnn[8] AAA: California Counties and their Abbreviations
Colorado 5AAnnnn[9] List of counties in Colorado
Connecticut CT‑nnnnn N/A
Delaware 7ABnnnn[10] A: K = Kent County, N = New Castle County, and S = Sussex County. B: Figure 25: Map of blocks
Florida 8AAnnnn[11] List of counties in Florida
Georgia 9AAnnnn[12] AA: County Abbreviation Codes
Hawaii 50‑nn[1]‑nn‑nnnn[13] nn[1]: 10 = Hawaii, 20 = Kaho'olawi, 30 = Kaua'i, 40 = Lana'i, 50 = Maui, 60 = Moloka'i, 80 = O'ahu, 91 = Necker, 92 = Nihoa[14]
Idaho 10AAnnnn
Illinois 11AAnnnn[15] List of counties in Illinois
Indiana 12AAnnnn[15] List of counties in Indiana
Iowa 13AAnnnn[16] AA: Iowa County Abbreviations for Site Designation
Kansas 14AAnnnn[17] AA: Kansas County Abbreviations for Archeological Trinomials
Kentucky 15AAnnnn[15] List of counties in Kentucky
Louisiana 16AAnnnn[18] List of parishes in Louisiana
Maine ME-nn-nn
Maryland 18AAnnnn[19] List of counties in Maryland
Massachusetts 19-AA-nnnn
Michigan 20AAnnnn[20] List of counties in Michigan
Minnesota 21AAnnnn[21] AA: Trinomial Site Designations for MN Counties
Mississippi 22‑AA‑nnnn[22] List of counties in Mississippi
Missouri 23AAnnnn List of counties in Missouri
Montana 24AAnnnn[23]
Nebraska 25AAnnnn[24]
Nevada 26AAnnnn[25]
New Hampshire 27‑AA‑nnnn[26] AA: Belknap (BK) · Carroll (CA) · Cheshire (CH) · Coos (CO) · Grafton (GR) · Hillsborough (HB) · Merrimack (MR) · Rockingham (RK) · Strafford (ST) · Sullivan (SU)
New Jersey 28AAnnnn
New Mexico 29AAnnnn
North Carolina[27] 31AAnnnn AA: Alamance (AM) · Alexander (AX) · Alleghany (AL) · Anson (AN) · Ashe (AH) · Avery (Av) · Beaufort (BF) · Bertie (BR) · Bladen (BL) · Brunswick (BW) · Buncombe (BN) · Burke (BK) · Cabarrus (CA) · Caldwell (CW) · Camden (CM) · Carteret (CR) · Caswell (CS) · Catawba (CT) · Chatham (CH) · Cherokee (CE) · Chowan (CO) · Clay (CY) · Cleveland (CL) · Columbus (CB) · Craven (CV) · Cumberland (CD) · Currituck (CK) · Dare (DR) · Davidson (DV) · Davie (DE) · Duplin (DP) · Durham (DH) · Edgecombe (ED) · Forsyth (FY) · Franklin (FK) · Gaston (GS) · Gates (GA) · Graham (GH) · Granville (GV) · Greene (GR) · Guilford (GF) · Halifax (HX) · Harnett (HT) · Haywood (HW) · Henderson (HN) · Hertford (HF) · Hoke (HK) · Hyde (HY) · Iredell (ID) · Jackson (JK) · Johnston (JT) · Jones (JN) · Lee (LE) · Lenoir (LR) · Lincoln (LN) · Macon (MA) · Madison (MD) · Martin (MT) · McDowell (MC) · Mecklenburg (MK) · Mitchell (ML) · Montgomery (MG) · Moore (MR) · Nash (NS) · New Hanover (NH) · Northampton (NP) · Onslow (ON) · Orange (OR) · Pamlico (PM) · Pasquotank (PK) · Pender (PD) · Perquimans (PQ) · Person (PR) · Pitt (PT) · Polk (PL) · Randolph (RD) · Richmond (RH) · Robeson (RB) · Rockingham (RK) · Rowan (RW) · Rutherford (RF) · Sampson (SP) · Scotland (SC) · Stanly (ST) · Stokes (SK) · Surry (SR) · Swain (SW) · Transylvania (TV) · Tyrrell (TY) · Union (UN) · Vance (VN) · Wake (WA) · Warren (WR) · Washington (WH) · Watauga (WT) · Wayne (WY) · Wilkes (WK) · Wilson (WL) · Yadkin (YD · Yancey (YC)
North Dakota 32AAnnnn[28] AA: NDCRS Site Form Training Manual - Section I: Site Identification - County Codes (Page 10)
Ohio 33‑AA‑nnnn[29] AA: Appendix B: County Codes (OAI Codes) (Page 61)
Oregon[30] 35‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Oregon
Pennsylvania[31] 36‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Pennsylvania
Rhode Island RI‑nnnn N/A
South Carolina 38‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in South Carolina
South Dakota 39AAnnnn[32]
Tennessee[33] 40‑AA‑nnnn AA: County Abbreviations for Archaeological Site Numbers
Texas[34] 41‑AA‑nnnn AA: Texas County Abbreviations
Utah[35] 42‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Utah
Vermont[36] VT‑AA‑nnnn
Washington[37] 45‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Washington
West Virginia[38] 46‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in West Virginia
Wisconsin[39] 47‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Wisconsin

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Site Records". Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Site Forms". University of Georgia Anthropology Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Archaeological Collections Management: Old Washington State Park, Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas". Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  4. ^ "State Abbreviation for Archaeological Site Number Designation based on the Smithsonian Institution River Basin Survey of the 1940s". Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Archaeological Excavation steps". University of Alabama. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Alaska Heritage Resources Survey". Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  7. ^ "ASM Site Numbering and Quadrangle System". Arizona State Museum. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Glossary of Frequently Used Terms". CaliforniaPrehistory.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  9. ^ "What Does the Site Number Mean?". Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Survey Forms Instructions and Data Coordination Guidance". Delaware State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Guidelines for Survey Projects". Florida Division of Historical Resources. Retrieved January 25, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Site Forms". University of Georgia Anthropology Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Glossary of Terms". Bishop Museum. Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Register of Historic Places". Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c Pollack, David (August 19, 2004). Caborn-Welborn: Constructing a New Society after the Angel Chiefdom Collapse. University Alabama Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0817351267. 
  16. ^ "How to Complete the Iowa Archaeological Site Record Form: A Guide for Nonprofessional Archaeologists". Office of the State Archaeologist. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Kansas County Abbreviations for Archeological Trinomials". Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  18. ^ Fields, Ross C., ed. (1989). "Archelogical survey and testing along Boone Creek, Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Webster Parish, Louisiana". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. p. 40. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Archaeological Site Survey". Maryland Historic Trust. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  20. ^ Beld, Scott. "Some Notes On Recording The Location Of Sites And Obtaining Site Numbers". Michigan Archaeological Society. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Trinomial Site Designations for MN Counties". University of Minnesota. Retrieved January 25, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Mississippi Archaeological Sites Files: Section Grid". United States National Resources conservation Service. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Applying Site Numbers to Cultural Resources". Montana State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ "National Historic Preservation Act Archaeological Properties Section 106 Guidelines". Nebraska State Historic Preservation Office. p. 22. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Guidelines and Standards for Archaeological Inventory". Bureau of Land Management: Nevada State Office. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  26. ^ "New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources: Archaeological Inventory Site Form Manual". Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Archaeological Site Form Handbook". North Carolina Office of State Archaeology. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  28. ^ "NDCRS Site Form Training Manual". Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Planning Bulletin #3: Applying Site Numbers to Cultural Resources". Montana State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Oregon SHPO On-Line Site Form User Manual". Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  32. ^ Johnson, Craig M. (2007). A Chronology of Middle Missouri Plains Village Sites. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 7.  NOTE: PDF downloads
  33. ^ List of archaeological sites in Tennessee
  34. ^ "Site Records". Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  35. ^ "How to Receive Utah State Archaeological Project Numbers and Site Numbers". Utah State History. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Guidelines for Conducting Archaeology in Vermont: Appendix I". Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Frequently asked questions on the Washington State Inventory of Cultural Resources". Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Guidelines for Phase I, II, and III Archaeological Investigations and Technical Report Preparation". West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Wisconsin's Archaeological and burial site Inventory Forms". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved January 9, 2013.