Smoke point

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In cooking, the smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under defined conditions, enough volatile compounds emerge from the oil that a bluish smoke becomes clearly visible. At this temperature, volatile compounds, such as water, free fatty acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up from the oil. The smoke point is not the temperature at which the oil is decomposed and where possibly toxicological relevant compounds are formed.

The smoke point for an oil varies widely depending on origin and refinement.[1] The smoke point of an oil does tend to increase as free fatty acid content decreases and degree of refinement increases.[2][3] Heating the oil produces free fatty acid and as this heating time increases, more free fatty acids are produced, thereby decreasing smoke point. It is one reason not to use the same oil to deep fry more than twice.[1] Intermittent frying has a markedly greater effect on oil deterioration than continuous frying.[4]

Considerably above the temperature of the smoke point is the flash point, the point at which the vapours from the oil can first ignite when mixed with air.

The following table presents smoke points of various fats:

Fat Quality Smoke Point
Almond oil 216°C[citation needed] 420°F
Avocado oil Un-Refined, Virgin 190-204°C[citation needed] 375-400°F
Avocado oil Refined 271°C[citation needed] 520°F
Butter 121–149°C[citation needed] 250–300°F
Canola oil(Rapeseed) Expeller Press 190-232°C 375-450°F[5]
Canola oil High Oleic 246°C[citation needed] 475°F
Canola oil Refined 204°C[1] 400°F
Castor oil Refined 200°C[6] 392°F
Coconut oil Dry Expeller Pressed Virgin (Unrefined) 177°C 350°F[7]
Coconut oil Dry Refined 204°C 400°F[8]
Corn oil Unrefined 178°C[6] 352°F
Corn oil Refined 232°C[1] 450°F
Cottonseed oil 216°C[1] 420°F
Flax seed oil Unrefined 107°C[citation needed] 225°F
Ghee (Indian Clarified Butter) 252°C[citation needed] 485°F
Grapeseed oil 216°C[citation needed] 420°F
Hazelnut oil 221°C[citation needed] 430°F
Hemp oil 165°C[citation needed] 330°F
Lard 192°C[citation needed] 390°F
Macadamia oil 210°C[citation needed] 413°F
Mustard oil 254°C[citation needed] 489°F
Olive oil Extra virgin 191°C[citation needed] 375°F
Olive oil Virgin 199°C[6] 391°F
Olive oil Pomace 238°C[1] 460°F
Olive oil Extra light 242°C[1] 468°F
Olive oil, high quality (low acidity) Extra virgin 207°C[citation needed] 405°F
Palm oil Difractionated 235°C[9] 455°F
Peanut oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Peanut oil Refined 232°C[1] 450°F
Rice bran oil 254°C[citation needed] 490°F
Safflower oil Unrefined 107°C[citation needed] 225°F
Safflower oil Semirefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Safflower oil Refined 266°C[1] 510°F
Sesame oil Unrefined 177°C[citation needed] 350°F
Sesame oil Semirefined 232°C[citation needed] 450°F
Soybean oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Soybean oil Semirefined 177°C[citation needed] 350°F
Soybean oil Refined 238°C[1] 460°F
Sunflower oil Unrefined 107°C[citation needed] 225°F
Sunflower oil Semirefined 232°C[citation needed] 450°F
Sunflower oil Refined 227°C[1] 440°F
Sunflower oil, high oleic Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Tallow (Beef) 215°C[citation needed] 420°F
Tea seed oil 252°C[citation needed] 485°F
Vegetable shortening 182°C[citation needed] 360°F
Walnut oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Walnut oil Semirefined 204°C[citation needed] 400°F

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  2. ^ Morgan, D. A. (1942). "Smoke, fire, and flash points of cottonseed, peanut, and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 19: 193. doi:10.1007/BF02545481.  edit
  3. ^ Bockisch, Michael (1998). Fats and Oils Handbook. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN 0-935315-82-9. 
  4. ^ Amit K. Das, et al, http://www.slideshare.net/amitkdas12/study-of-oil-deterioration-during-continuous-and-intermittent-frying
  5. ^ Spectrum Organics, Canola Oil Manufacturer, http://www.spectrumorganics.com/shared/faq.php?fqid=34
  6. ^ a b c Detwiler, S. B.; Markley, K. S. (1940). "Smoke, flash, and fire points of soybean and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 17 (2): 39–40. doi:10.1007/BF02543003.  edit
  7. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer, http://nutiva.com/introducing-nutiva-refined-coconut-oil/
  8. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer, http://nutiva.com/introducing-nutiva-refined-coconut-oil/
  9. ^ (Italian) Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64.