Smoke point

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In cooking, the smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which under defined conditions enough volatile compounds are emerged from the oil that a bluish smoke becomes clearly visible. At this temperature the concentration of volatile compounds such as water, free fatty acids but also short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up from the oil. The smoke point is not the temperature at which the oil is decomposed and possibly toxicological relevant compounds are formed.

The smoke point for an oil varies widely depending on origin and refinement.[1] The smoke point of an oil does tend to increase as free fatty acid content decreases and degree of refinement increases.[2][3] Heating oil produces free fatty acid and as heating time increases, more free fatty acids are produced, thereby decreasing smoke point. It is one reason not to use the same oil to deep fry more than twice.[1] Intermittent frying has a markedly greater effect on oil deterioration than continuous frying.[4]

Considerably above the temperature of the smoke point is the flash point, the point at which the vapors from the oil can first ignite when mixed with air.

The following table presents smoke points of various fats:

Fat Quality Smoke Point
Almond oil 216°C 420°F
Avocado oil Un-Refined, Virgin 190-204°C 375-400°F
Avocado oil Refined 271°C 520°F
Butter 121–149°C 250–300°F
Canola oil Expeller Press 190-232°C 375-450°F[5]
Canola oil High Oleic 246°C 475°F
Canola oil Refined 204°C[1] 400°F
Castor oil Refined 200°C[6] 392°F
Coconut oil Virgin (Unrefined) 177°C 350°F[7]
Coconut oil Refined with stabilizers 232°C 450°F
Corn oil Unrefined 178°C[6] 352°F
Corn oil Refined 232°C[1] 450°F
Cottonseed oil 216°C[1] 420°F
Flax seed oil Unrefined 107°C 225°F
Ghee (Indian Clarified Butter) 252°C 485°F
Grapeseed oil 216°C 420°F
Hazelnut oil 221°C 430°F
Hemp oil 165°C 330°F
Lard 192°C 390°F
Macadamia oil 210°C 413°F
Mustard oil 254°C 489°F
Olive oil Extra virgin 191°C 375°F
Olive oil Virgin 199°C[6] 391°F
Olive oil Pomace 238°C[1] 460°F
Olive oil Extra light 242°C[1] 468°F
Olive oil, high quality (low acidity) Extra virgin 207°C 405°F
Palm oil Difractionated 235°C[8] 455°F
Peanut oil Unrefined 160°C 320°F
Peanut oil Refined 232°C[1] 450°F
Rice bran oil 254°C 490°F
Safflower oil Unrefined 107°C 225°F
Safflower oil Semirefined 160°C 320°F
Safflower oil Refined 266°C[1] 510°F
Sesame oil Unrefined 177°C 350°F
Sesame oil Semirefined 232°C 450°F
Soybean oil Unrefined 160°C 320°F
Soybean oil Semirefined 177°C 350°F
Soybean oil Refined 238°C[1] 460°F
Sunflower oil Unrefined 107°C 225°F
Sunflower oil Semirefined 232°C 450°F
Sunflower oil Refined 227°C[1] 440°F
Sunflower oil, high oleic Unrefined 160°C 320°F
Tallow (Beef) 215°C 420°F
Tea seed oil 252°C 485°F
Vegetable shortening 182°C 360°F
Walnut oil Unrefined 160°C 320°F
Walnut oil Semirefined 204°C 400°F

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  2. ^ Morgan, D. A. (1942). "Smoke, fire, and flash points of cottonseed, peanut, and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 19: 193. doi:10.1007/BF02545481.  edit
  3. ^ Bockisch, Michael (1998). Fats and Oils Handbook. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN 0-935315-82-9. 
  4. ^ Amit K. Das, et al, http://www.slideshare.net/amitkdas12/study-of-oil-deterioration-during-continuous-and-intermittent-frying
  5. ^ Spectrum Organics, Canola Oil Manufacturer, http://www.spectrumorganics.com/shared/faq.php?fqid=34
  6. ^ a b c Detwiler, S. B.; Markley, K. S. (1940). "Smoke, flash, and fire points of soybean and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 17 (2): 39–40. doi:10.1007/BF02543003.  edit
  7. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer, http://nutiva.com/the-nutiva-kitchen/coconut-oil-recipes/
  8. ^ (Italian) Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64.