Смоленская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||September 27, 1937|
|Government (as of March 2011)|
|- Governor||Aleksey Ostrovskiy|
|- Legislature||Oblast Duma|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||49,800 km2 (19,200 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||19.79 /km2 (51.3 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
Smolensk Oblast (Russian: Смоле́нская о́бласть, Smolenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its area is 49,800 square kilometers (19,200 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Smolensk. Population: 985,537 (2010 Census).
In the 12th century, the autonomous grand duchy of Smolensk experienced its heyday, taking up a large part of the Smolensk region. Tatar-Mongol hordes did not reach Smolensk, but he admits 1274 vassal of the Golden Horde. In the 14th century Smolensk Prince Ivan with Lithuanians got rid of the Tatar yoke. As a result, in the Smolensk land in 1340 invades Moscow-Ryazan-Tatar army. Smolensk princes fluctuate between Lithuania and Moscow. In 1348, Smolensk Knights crossed swords with the Crusaders at the Battle of Strėva. In 1368 and 1370 years. Smolensk ratification participated in campaigns Olgerda to Moscow, but the intervention of the Russian Orthodox Church made the princes of Smolensk to take pro-Moscow stance. Smolyan shoulder-to- shoulder with the Muscovites fought in the Battle of Kulikovo. In 1395, Vytautas the first time storm takes Smolensk and Bryansk plants to the throne Prince Roman. In 1399, Smolensk regiments together with Lithuanians attacked the Tatars of the Vorskla River.
In July 1404 the Lithuanian prince Vytautas captured Smolensk and put an end to its independence. In 1410 Smolensk regiments together with Lithuanians are involved in a battle with the German knights. During the battle vedroshskoy in 1500 in Smolensk Moscow's troops defeated the Lithuanians. In 1514, Smolensk and later other lands, went to Muscovy.
In 1610, at the Battle of Smolensk the land was under Klushino, resulting in the Polish troops opened the way to Moscow. After the liberation of Moscow from the Poles, the king's son Vladislav did not leave attempts to occupy the throne in 1617, he chose Smolensk base for their march on Moscow. After the Time of Troubles, according Deulino truce in 1618, Smolensk land was transferred to the Commonwealth. Smolensk gentry began to take shape. In the Smolensk War (1632-1634) Russia was not able to regain Smolensk land.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, Smolensk was one of the most important economic and military centers of the Grand Princedom of Moscow. It was also a major commercial center, and home industry production reached high levels. Construction of the Smolensk fortress wall was an important event in the history of Russia. Smolensk Oblast was formed in September 1937 from the central and western districts of Western Oblast as the result of a reorganization of the latter oblast. The new oblast exceeded present-day Smolensk Oblast in both population and area.
The oblast was founded on September 27, 1937. It borders Pskov Oblast in the north, Tver Oblast in the northeast, Moscow Oblast in the east, Kaluga and Bryansk Oblasts in the south, and Mogilev and Vitebsk Oblasts of Belarus, in the west and northwest, as part of the Belarus–Russia border.
The main river of the region is the Dnieper River and its tributaries, Desna, Vop, Vyazma. By the rivers of the Volga basin and its tributary Vazuza Gzhat and tributary of the Oka river, Ugra. To the north-west flows a short section of the Western Dvina River and its tributary river Kasplya .
Among the major reservoirs supplying water are Moscow Vazuzssky Yauza and reservoirs in the north-east, as well as cooling power plants - Smolensk reservoir in the north near the village of Lake and Desnogorsk Reservoir in the south area of the city near the Desnogorsk .
Smolensk Oblast has a temperate continental climate with warm summers and moderately cold winters. The climate is influenced by moist Atlantic air, but inflows of Arctic air masses are possible at any time of year. Winds are mainly from the west, southwest, and south; and the relative humidity is 81%. The average January temperature is −9.4 °C (15.1 °F), and the average July temperature is +17.1 °C (62.8 °F); average annual precipitation is 600 millimeters (24 in).
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Smolensk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Smolensk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Smolensk is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
- Births: 10 289 (10.5 per 1000)
- Deaths: 16 318 (16.7 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.40 | 2010 - 1.38 | 2011 - 1.40 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.46(e)
According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows:
- Russians: 94.6%
- Ukrainians: 1.3%
- Belarusians: 1.3%
- Armenians: 0.5%
- Others: 2.3%
- 41,457 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey 19.5% of the population of Smolensk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 3% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 2% to Starovery (Old Believers), 1% of the population adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism)), 0.4% to the Catholic Church. In addition, 45% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 9.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Smolensk Oblast is part of Russia's Central economic region. Industry in this district includes sectors such as engineering and metalworking (production of measuring and hydrometeorological devices, computer equipment, electrical appliances, refrigerators, automobiles, power-generating and store equipment, and aircraft manufacture), the chemical industry (production of ammonia, saltpeter, fertilizers, and plastics), light industry (production of clothing, and cotton and linen fabrics), the food industry, and brown coal and peat production.
Nearly 40% of the industrial production potential is concentrated in the city of Smolensk. Diamond cutting companies have the largest share of GDP. The largest of these companies is the Kristall State Unitary enterprise (GUP Kristall) in Smolensk. Smolensk is also a major center of the engineering and metalworking industries, with the instrument-making, electronics, electrical, and auto industries having the largest share of GDP among engineering companies.
- Isaac Asimov, born in Petrovichi
- Yuri Gagarin, born in Klushino
- Shmuel Schneersohn, born in Lyubavichi
- Ivan Sidorenko
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- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
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