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The Smurf Attack is a denial-of-service attack in which large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets with the intended victim's spoofed source IP are broadcast to a computer network using an IP Broadcast address. Most devices on a network will, in their default settings, respond to this by sending a reply to the source IP address. If the number of machines on the network that receive and respond to these packets is very large, the victim's computer will be flooded with traffic. This can slow down the victim's computer to the point where it becomes impossible to work on.
The name Smurf comes from the file "smurf.c", the source code of the attack program, which was released in 1997 by TFreak.
In the late 1990s, many IP networks participated in Smurf attacks only if prompted (that is, they would respond to ICMP requests sent to broadcast addresses). Today, thanks largely to the ease with which administrators can make a network immune to such abuse, very few networks remain vulnerable to Smurf attacks.
The fix is two-fold:
- Configure individual hosts and routers not to respond to ICMP requests or broadcasts; or
- Configure routers not to forward packets directed to broadcast addresses. Until 1999, standards required routers to forward such packets by default, but, in that year, the standard was changed to require the default to be not to forward.
Mitigation on a Cisco Router
An example of configuring a router so it will not forward packets to broadcast addresses, for a Cisco router, is:
Router(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
(This example does not prevent a network from becoming the target of Smurf attack; it merely prevents the network from taking part in a Smurf attack.)
A Smurf amplifier is a computer network that lends itself to being used in a Smurf attack. Smurf amplifiers act to worsen the severity of a Smurf attack because they are configured in such a way that they generate a large number of ICMP replies to the victim at the spoofed source IP address.
A fraggle attack is a variation of a Smurf attack where an attacker sends a large amount of UDP traffic to ports 7 (echo) and 19 (chargen) to an IP Broadcast Address, with the intended victim's spoofed source IP address. It works very similar to the Smurf attack in that many computers on the network will respond to this traffic by sending traffic back to the spoofed source IP of the victim, flooding it with traffic.
"Fraggle.c", the source code of the attack, was also released by TFreak.
- "Phreak.org exploits archive: smurf.c".
- For example, netscan.org (Web Archive) showed 122,945 broken networks as of Jan 25, 1999, but only 2,417 as of Jan 06, 2005.
- D. Senie, "Changing the Default for Directed Broadcasts in Routers", RFC 2644, BCP 34
- P. Ferguson and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing", RFC 2827, BCP 38
- "Phreak.org exploits archive: fraggle.c".