Trichosanthes cucumerina is a tropical or subtropical vine, its variety T. cucumerina var. anguina raised for its strikingly long fruit, used as a vegetable, medicine, and in crafting traditional Australian musical instruments known as didgeridoos. Common names of the cultivated variety include snake gourd[note 1], serpent gourd, chichinda, and padwal.
Trichosanthes cucumerina is found in the wild across much of South and Southeast Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), and southern China (Guangxi and Yunnan). It is also regarded as native in northern Australia. and naturalized in Florida, parts of Africa and on various islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
- Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines – cultivated variant
- Trichosanthes cucumerina var. cucumerina – wild variant
Trichosanthes cucumerina is a monoecious annual vine climbing by means of tendrils. Leaves are palmately lobed, up to 25 cm long. Flowers are unisexual, white, opening at night, with long branching hairs on the margins of the petals. These hairs are curled up in the daytime when the flower is closed, but unfurl at night to form a delicate lacy display (see photos in gallery below). Fruits can be up to 200 cm long, deep red at maturity, hanging below the vine.
The related Japanese snake gourd (Trichosanthes pilosa, sometimes called T. ovigera or T. cucumeroides), very similar in vegetative morphology, but the fruit of T. pilosa is round to egg-shaped, only about 7 cm long.
The common name "snake gourd" refers to the narrow, twisted, elongated fruit. The soft-skinned immature fruit can reach up to 150 cm (59 in) in length. Its soft, bland, somewhat mucilaginous flesh is similar to that of the luffa and the calabash. It is popular in the cuisines of South Asia and Southeast Asia and is now grown in some home gardens in Africa. With some cultivars, the immature fruit has an unpleasant odor and a slightly bitter taste, both of which disappear in cooking. The fruit becomes too bitter to eat as it reaches maturity, but it does contain a reddish pulp that is used in Africa as a substitute for tomatoes.
- Lagenaria siceraria, some of its immature edible cultivars can be found as "snake gourds", not the preferred name.[note 4]
- Robinson and Decker-Walters (1997) p. 203-206: "Snake gourd" preferred name for Trichosanthes cucumerina, and Trichosanthes cucumerina preferred definition for "snake gourd".
- Robinson and Decker-Walters (1997) p. 203-206: "Chinese snake gourd" preferred name for Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Trichosanthes kirilowii preferred definition for "chinese snake gourd".
- Robinson and Decker-Walters (1997) p. 203-206: "Japanese snake gourd" preferred name for Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Trichosanthes kirilowii preferred definition for "japanese snake gourd".
- Decker-Walters (1996): "Gourd - Lagenaria. (...) Longissima (Baton, Long Club, Italian Edible, Cucuzzi, Cucuzzi Caravazzi, Snake, Flute, Serpent) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: similar to Hercules Club but longer, edible at 1' long x 2" diameter but will grow to 6' long; from Italy. Similar: Hercules Club. 1885"
- The Plant List, Trichosanthes cucumerina
- Flowers of India, snake gourd, Trichosanthes cucumerina
- Flora of China v 19 p 38, Trichosanthes cucumerina
- Florabase, the Western Australia Flora, Trichosanthes cucumerina
- Coopper, Wendy E., & Hugo J. DeBoer. 2011. A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from Northern Territory. Austrobaileya 8:364-386.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plants Profile, Trichosanthes cucumerina, snakegourd
- Prota 2, Vegetables/Légumes, Trichosanthes cucumerina L.
- Flora of China v 19 p 45, Trichosanthes cucumeroides
- Kew Gardens Millennium Seed Bank, the weird and wonderful snake gourd
- Robinson RW and DS Decker-Walters. 1997. Appendix: Common Cucurbit Names and their Scientific Equivalents. in: Cucurbits. CAB International, USA.
- DS Decker-Walters (ed., 1996-2010) Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America. Gourd - Lagenaria, Lists 1-26 Combined. In: Cucurbit Breeding. Horticultural Science.