|The Simpsons family|
|Created by||Matt Groening|
|Origin||The Tracey Ullman Show|
|Original run||April 19, 1987– present|
|First appearance||"Good Night" (The Tracey Ullman Show)|
|Address||742 Evergreen Terrace, Springfield, United States|
The Simpson family are cartoon characters featured in the animated television series The Simpsons. The Simpsons are a nuclear family consisting of married couple Homer and Marge and their three children Bart, Lisa and Maggie. They live at 742 Evergreen Terrace in the fictional town of Springfield, U.S. and they were created by cartoonist Matt Groening (who also created Futurama) who conceived the idea while waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks's office. He named the characters after his own family members, substituting "Bart" for his own name. The family debuted April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" and were later spun off into their own series which debuted on December 17, 1989.
Alongside the five main family members, there are a number of other major and minor characters in their family. The most commonly recurring characters are Homer's father Abraham Simpson; Marge's sisters Patty and Selma Bouvier; and the family's two pets, Santa's Little Helper and Snowball II. Other family members include Homer's mother Mona Simpson, Homer's half-brother Herbert Powell, Marge's mother Jacqueline Bouvier, and other minor relatives.
- 1 Main family
- 2 Pets
- 3 Extended Simpson family
- 4 Extended Bouvier family
- 5 References
The Simpsons are a family who live in at 742 Evergreen Terrace in the town of Springfield in the United States. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality. He is married to Marge Simpson, a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: Bart, a ten-year-old troublemaker; Lisa, a precocious intelligent eight-year-old environmental activist; and Maggie, a baby who rarely speaks, but communicates by sucking on a pacifier. The family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, and a cat, Snowball II. Both pets have had starring roles in several seasons. Despite the passing of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays, the Simpsons do not physically age and still appear just as they did at the end of the 1980s. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are often shown to care about one another.
Groening conceived of the idea for the Simpsons in the lobby of James L. Brooks's office. Brooks had asked Groening to pitch an idea for a series of animated shorts, which Groening initially intended to present as his Life in Hell series. However, when Groening realized that animating Life in Hell would require the rescinding of publication rights for his life's work, he chose another approach and formulated his version of a dysfunctional family. He named the characters after his own family members — his father Homer, his mother Margaret, and his younger sisters Lisa and Maggie. He substituted "Bart", an anagram of "brat", for his own name, and modeled the character after his older brother, Mark.
The five family members were given simple designs so that their facial emotions could easily be changed with almost no effort and so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. Groening submitted only basic sketches to the animators and assumed that the figures would be cleaned-up in production. However, the animators merely re-traced his drawings, which led to the crude appearance of the characters in the initial short episodes. The Simpson family made their debut on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company. The Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.
Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, and Yeardley Smith all began voicing their characters on The Tracey Ullman Show. Nancy Cartwright was the only one of the group who had been trained to be a voice actor while Castellaneta had done some voice over work in Chicago. Castellaneta and Kavner had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show and voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask them to voice Homer and Marge rather than hire more actors. The producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Yeardley Smith had initially been asked to audition for the role of Bart, but casting director Bonita Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled, "I always sounded too much like a girl. I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'" Smith was given the role of Lisa instead. On March 13, 1987, Nancy Cartwright went in to audition for the role of Lisa. After arriving at the audition, she found that Lisa was simply described as the "middle child" and at the time did not have much personality. Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart who she found more fascinating because he was described as "devious, underachieving, school-hating, irreverent, [and] clever." Matt Groening let her try out for the part instead, and upon hearing her read, gave her the job on the spot.
Homer Jay Simpson, voiced by Dan Castellaneta, is the father of the Simpson family. He embodies several American working class stereotypes: he is crude, overweight, incompetent, clumsy, thoughtless and a borderline alcoholic. He has occasionally displayed flashes of great intellect and fitness whenever the situation calls for it, and an integrity reflecting his own values, including a fierce devotion to and protectiveness of his family. His voice started out as an impression of Walter Matthau but eventually evolved into a more robust voice during the second and third season of the half-hour show, allowing Homer to cover a fuller range of emotions. Homer has since become one of the most influential fictional characters and has been described by the UK newspaper The Sunday Times as the greatest comedic creation of modern time. He has inspired an entire line of merchandise, and his catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh!", has been included in the Oxford English Dictionary.
Marjorie "Marge" Simpson (née Bouvier), voiced by Julie Kavner, is the well-meaning and extremely patient wife of Homer and mother of Bart, Lisa and Maggie. She often acts as the voice of reason, but displays exaggerated behavior traits of stereotypical mothers and takes the blatant dysfunctionality of her family for granted, unlike the other family members, who are aware that they are eccentric. Her most notable physical feature is her blue hair, styled into an improbably high beehive. Julie Kavner received a Primetime Emmy Award in 1992 for voicing Marge in the episode "I Married Marge". For her performance in The Simpsons Movie, Kavner received a nomination for "Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature" at the 2007 Annie Awards, but lost to Ian Holm in Ratatouille. Kavner's emotional performance in the movie got positive reviews and one critic said she "gave what must be the most heartfelt performance ever". Part of Kavner's contract says that she will never have to promote The Simpsons on video because she does not want to "destroy the illusion for children". In 2008, CityNews published an article entitled "Top 10 Greatest TV Moms of All Time", and placed Marge in eighth spot.
Bartholomew JoJo "Bart" Simpson, voiced by Nancy Cartwright, is the eldest child and only son in the family—at age 10. Bart's most prominent character traits are his mischievousness, rebelliousness, disrespect for authority and sharp wit. During the first two seasons of The Simpsons, Bart was the show's main character. The name "Bart" is an anagram of the word "brat". Groening conceived Bart as an extreme version of the typical misbehaving child character, merging all of the extreme traits of characters such as Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn into one person. Groening's older brother Mark provided most of the inspiration for Bart. Bart's catchphrase "Eat My Shorts" was an ad-lib by Cartwright in one of the original table readings, harking back to an incident when she was at college. In 1998, Time magazine selected Bart as 46th of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, and the only fictional character to make the list. He had previously appeared on the cover of the December 31, 1990 edition. Bart is rebellious and frequently escapes without punishment, which lead some parents' groups and conservative spokespeople to believe he provided a poor role model for children. This prompted George H. W. Bush to rally, "We're going to keep trying to strengthen the American family. To make them more like the Waltons and less like the Simpsons." Bart, and other Simpsons characters, have appeared in numerous television commercials for Nestlé's Butterfinger candy bars from 1990–2001, with the slogan "Nobody better lay a finger on my Butterfinger!"
Lisa Marie Simpson, voiced by Yeardley Smith, is the eldest daughter and middle child of the family. She is an extremely intelligent eight-year-old girl, one of the most intelligent characters on the show. Lisa's political convictions are generally socially liberal. She is a vegetarian, and a supporter of the Free Tibet movement, and while still supportive of the Christian church in which she was raised, Lisa became a practicing Buddhist following her decision to follow the Noble Eightfold Path. In the Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was more of a "female Bart" and was equally mischievous. As the series progressed, Lisa began to develop into a more intelligent and more emotional character with "Krusty Gets Busted" being one of the first episodes where her true intelligence is fully shown. Many episodes focusing on Lisa have an emotional nature, the first one being "Moaning Lisa". The idea for the episode was pitched by James L. Brooks, who had wanted to do an emotional episode where Lisa is sad because the show had done a lot of "jokey episodes". In 2001 Lisa received a special "Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award" at the Environmental Media Awards. "Lisa the Vegetarian", an episode from the seventh season, won both an Environmental Media Award for "Best Television Episodic Comedy" and a Genesis Award for "Best Television Comedy Series, Ongoing Commitment". In Japan, the broadcasters of the series found they were able to turn the apparent viewer dislike of the series around by focusing marketing attention on Lisa. Lisa's well-intended but ill-fated struggles to be a voice of reason and a force of good in her family and city struck a chord with the Japanese.
Margaret "Maggie" Simpson, is the youngest of the five main family members and is almost always seen as a baby. She is 2 years old. She was quite prominent in the Tracey Ullman Show shorts, often being featured alongside Bart and Lisa but has since become the least seen and heard of the five main Simpsons. It has been revealed that Maggie has outstanding artistic and academic abilities, much like her sister Lisa. Maggie rarely speaks, but has been voiced by several different actors including Jodie Foster, Elizabeth Taylor, James Earl Jones, Harry Shearer, who used his Kang voice, Yeardley Smith, and Nancy Cartwright.
Santa's Little Helper
Santa's Little Helper, voiced by Frank Welker and Dan Castellaneta, is the Simpsons' pet greyhound. He first appeared in the series premiere as a race dog adopted by Homer and Bart and has been in the series ever since.
Laddie was a collie owned by the Simpson family in the episode "The Canine Mutiny," after Bart took out a credit card under the name "Santos L. Halper," and purchased him from a catalogue. Designed to be the ultimate dog, Laddie was able to perform household chores and use the toilet. Laddie's currently resides with the Springfield Police Department after he incidentally sniffed out marijuana at a blind man's house and Bart gave up ownership.
Snowball, also known as Snowball I, was the Simpsons' first cat. She was first mentioned in the series premiere in a Christmas letter Marge is writing where she explains that Snowball had died that year and went to "kitty heaven". Snowball was named due to her white-colored fur. Snowball was, according to Lisa in a poem, run over by a Chrysler. She is seen in flashback in the ninth season episode Lisa's Sax.
Snowball II was the Simpson family's second cat. Though Snowball I had white fur, which inspired her name, Snowball II had black fur. She first appeared in the series premiere but has received little attention in the series. Snowball II and Santa's Little Helper have always been shown as having a good relationship; usually they are seen sleeping near each other. Snowball II's largest role is in the fourteenth season episode "Old Yeller Belly", in which she saves Homer from a burning treehouse. She also has minor roles in "Bart Gets an Elephant", where she tries to get attention; in "Two Dozen and One Greyhounds", in which she is scared by the many puppies; and in "Make Room for Lisa", in which Lisa has a hallucination where she becomes Snowball II. In the episode "I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot", Snowball II is hit and killed by Dr. Hibbert's Mercedes-Benz G500. After numerous fleeting replacements for Snowball II, the fifth (and last surviving) cat is named Snowball II by Lisa, in order both to avoid future confusions and to save more money on a first-hand food bowl.
Snowball III was the third cat owned by the Simpsons. Snowball III was a ginger male Persian cat. In "I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot", Lisa adopts him from an animal shelter shortly after the death of Snowball II. He drowns trying to catch a goldfish in an aquarium while Lisa is preparing his cat food in the kitchen for the first time.
Coltrane was the Simpsons' fourth cat, adopted from an animal shelter shortly after the death of Snowball III. Originally, Lisa is not certain she wants another cat, but Coltrane's name wins her over due to its resemblance to that of the jazz musician John Coltrane. Upon bringing Coltrane home, Lisa decides to play him some of John Coltrane's music on her saxophone, but the noise frightens him and he commits suicide by jumping out the window. Coltrane was the Simpsons' only cat since Snowball I to have been white, although he was the only one not to be named Snowball. However, Lisa evidently considers him as part of the Snowball lineage, as she names her next cat Snowball V, implying that Coltrane was Snowball IV.
Snowball V (Snowball II)
Snowball V, later renamed Snowball II, is the Simpsons' fifth cat and is almost identical in appearance to Snowball II. In "I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot", the Crazy Cat Lady throws a cat at Lisa while she is mourning the death of her other three cats that are killed in the episode. Lisa then tells the cat to leave, because any cat that she owns is unlucky and is certain to be killed. As the cat starts to cross Evergreen Terrace, a car driven by Gil Gunderson drives past. As Gil swerves to avoid hitting the cat, his car hits a tree and bursts into flames, thereby giving him insurance compensation for his meals. Since the cat is intact and whole, Lisa takes it as a sign of good luck and adopts her. Lisa renames Snowball V "Snowball II" at the end of the episode, in her words "to save money on a new dish", also promising to act as if the whole thing did not actually happen. Snowball V also is the focus of a subplot in the sixteenth season episode "The Seven-Beer Snitch", in which she becomes overweight after abandoning the Simpsons for brief periods to visit a different family' but she then goes back to live with the Simpson family. 
Stampy was an African Elephant briefly owned by the Simpson family in the episode "Bart Gets an Elephant."
Strangles was a green python that Bart owned during the episode "Stop or My Dog Will Shoot," during which time Santa's Little Helper was a police dog. Strangles' current owner is Groundskeeper Willie. Bart named the snake Strangles while it was strangling Homer on the dinner table.
In the episode "Lisa's Pony" Homer bought Lisa a pony to show her that he loves her but he has to work two jobs to keep her. When Lisa discovers this she gives up the pony.
Extended Simpson family
Abraham Jay-Jedediah "Abe" Simpson (or just Grampa), voiced by Dan Castellaneta, is the patriarch of the Simpson family, the father of Homer. He is a World War II veteran who was later sent to the Springfield Retirement Castle by Homer. He is known for his borderline senility, his long rambling (and probably apocryphal) stories and his love of Matlock. He shares his name with one of Matt Groening's relatives, in this case his grandfather. However, Groening says he refused to name him, leaving it to other writers to choose a name. By coincidence, the writers chose the name Abraham.
Mona Penelope Simpson (née Olsen), voiced by Glenn Close, is Homer's long-lost mother. Her first major appearance was in "Mother Simpson" where she reveals that she was forced to abandon her family after being caught up in the hippie movement and participated in various acts of activism. The writers used this episode as an opportunity to solve several little puzzles, such as where Lisa's intelligence came from. Prior to the seventh season, Mona Simpson had only made two brief flashback appearances, the first being season two's "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" and the second being season six's "Grampa vs. Sexual Inadequacy" and in both episodes she was voiced by Maggie Roswell. Mona dies in the episode "Mona Leaves-a", as Homer struggles to come to terms with her death. The character is named after writer Richard Appel's wife, whose maiden name is Mona Simpson. Mona was designed in a way so that she has little bit of Homer in her face, such as the shape of her upper lip and her nose. There were several design changes because the directors were trying to make her an attractive older and younger woman, but still be Simpson-esque. Glenn Close recorded original material for another episode, season fifteen's "My Mother the Carjacker". Mona also has a speaking appearance in season ten's "D'oh-in in the Wind", this time voiced by Tress MacNeille.
Herbert "Herb" Powell, voiced by Danny DeVito, is Homer's agnate half brother. He resembles Homer, though is much healthier, boasts a full head of hair and is more astute. His first appearance was in the season two episode "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" when Homer discovered he had a half-brother, the product of a short-lived affair between his father Abe and a carnival dunk-tank worker who was also a prostitute. When Abe met up with the dunk-tank worker again, she had a baby with her and the two decided to put him up for adoption. A year after the incident, Abe married Mona, and Mona promised Abe never to tell his son about Herb or how he was conceived. After being raised by his adopted parents Mr. and Mrs. Powell, Herb put himself through college by working odd jobs, then founded Powell Motors, a car company based in Detroit. Herb was overjoyed to learn that he had a birth family and bonded with his nieces and nephew, and — in his role as CEO — allowed Homer to design a car. However, the miserable failure of Homer's car bankrupted the company, and Herb became a street vagrant. The episode was written by Jeff Martin but the idea of having Herb voiced by Danny DeVito had been pitched by Sam Simon. Some were upset with the sad ending of the episode, and as a result the producers decided to write a sequel.
Herb re-appeared the next season in "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?". Now broke and homeless, he briefly settled in the Simpson household, despite his intense continuing antipathy toward Homer. Homer loaned Herb $2000, which Herb used to build an invention that translated infantile speech into comprehensible English, based on observations he made of Maggie. He proceeded to mass-produce his new product and regained his fortune. In gratitude, he bought gifts for each member of the family and paid Homer back with his forgiveness. Homer's "seldom seen half-brother" has had only one brief speaking part since this episode. DeVito reprised his role for the Season 24 episode 'The Changing of the Guardian' in which Powell's answering machine message is heard: "Hi, you've reached Herb Powell. I'm poor again."
Amber Simpson Voiced by Pamela Hayden, is the Vegas ex-wife of both Homer and Abe Simpson from the season ten episode "Viva Ned Flanders". Homer and Ned Flanders visit Las Vegas for the weekend, get drunk and unknowingly marry two women. Amber reappears in "Brawl in the Family", where the Simpson family trick her into marrying Grampa, and in the process forsake all other spouses. Amber is horrified at the deception and runs away back to Vegas, much to Grampa's disappointment at losing another wife. In "Jazzy and the Pussycats", the Simpsons attend Homer's ex-wife and former stepmother's funeral after Amber dies from a drug overdose.
Other Simpson family members
- Chet, voiced by Dan Castellaneta, owns an unsuccessful shrimp company.
- Cyrus, voiced by Hank Azaria, is Grampa's older brother who is seen in "Simpsons Christmas Stories". Cyrus crashed his Corsair at Tahiti in World War II's Pacific Theater of Operations during a kamikaze raid. He never left and now has 15 wives.
- Dr. Simpson, voiced by Tress MacNeille, is the chief of complicated surgeries at the invasive care unit; she is first seen in "Lisa the Simpson". She is the one who reassures Lisa that she will not suffer the defective Simpson Gene because of her gender and also reveals that only male members are affected by it. Dr. Simpson resembles Lisa, minus the spikes.
- Grampa's parents both appear briefly in "Much Apu About Nothing" when Grampa tells the story of how his family emigrated to America. Their names were given to be Orville J. Simpson and Yuma Hickman in The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album, but have never been mentioned in the series.
- Stanley, voiced by Dan Castellaneta, is the Simpson children's second cousin who shoots birds at the airport.
- Uncle Tyrone, voiced by Hank Azaria, is a cynical elderly Simpson relative who lives in Dayton, Ohio. The family intends to visit him during his birthday in the episode "Catch 'Em If You Can".
- Abbie is hinted to be Abe's illegitimate daughter and Homer's half sister from a relationship he had with a British woman named Edwina during World War II.
- A group of unnamed relatives show up in the episode "Lisa the Simpson", when Homer tries to prove to Lisa that not all Simpsons are failures. In the end, only Dr. Simpson and three other female members proved successful.
- Mabel Simpson, an ancestor of the Simpson family who was part of the underground railroad. She appeared in "The Color Yellow". She was married to Hiram before divorcing him and fleeing to Canada to marry Virgil.
- Virgil, an African American slave owned by Mr Burns' grandfather, Colonel Burns and rescued by Eliza. He was betrayed by Hiram but escaped with Mabel who he later married, from whom the Simpson family are really descended.
- Abraham Simpson, son of Mabel and Virgil, half-brother of Eliza and great-grandfather of Grampa Simpson.
- Hiram Simpson, a distant relative of the Simpson family who was bribed into revealing Virgil's whereabouts with a new pair of shoes.
- Eliza Simpson, a distant relative of the Simpson family and daughter of Mabel and Hiram. She was part of the underground railroad with her mother and helped Virgil evade capture.
Extended Bouvier family
Jacqueline Ingrid Bouvier (née Gurney), voiced by Julie Kavner, is the mother of Marge, Patty and Selma, and the widow of Clancy Bouvier. She was first referenced in a flashback in the episode, "Moaning Lisa" and made her first appearance in the episode "Bart vs. Thanksgiving". She had a sister named Gladys, who is now deceased. Like all Bouvier women, she is voiced by Julie Kavner, and has large, unique hair, resembling Marge's, only a light gray color due to her old age. In her younger days she smoked heavily but now has quit, although she still speaks more raspily than Patty and Selma. Mr. Burns and Abe Simpson once battled for her affections; she became engaged to Burns, but eventually decided not to marry either man. Although it seems that she disapproves of Marge's marriage to Homer and stating that he is never to address her as "Mom", it was more likely due to Jacqueline disliking the term "mom" herself and not out of disgust for Homer. She has shown that she does tolerate Homer evident in "Moe Letter Blues" when she explained to Homer that Patty and Selma were really at fault for ruining her birthday party and not him. Her name is identical to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis's maiden name, a reference made to Marge when Lisa wanted to follow the maiden name after uncovering Homer's betting scandal on Homer and Lisa Exchange Cross Words.
Clancy Bouvier, voiced by Harry Shearer, is the deceased father of Patty, Selma and Marge Simpson and the husband of Jacqueline Bouvier. His first appearance was in the episode "The Way We Was". He did not appear again until "Fear of Flying" where it was revealed that he was one of the earliest male flight attendants. Marge initially believed he was a heroic pilot and was traumatized when she discovered he was a flight attendant instead. The cause or time of his death is undetermined, but Homer reveals that he got Marge a "white-noise machine" to help her deal with her father's death. It was revealed by Marge in Bart the Lover that after Clancy got out of the Navy, he had trouble with his cursing that nearly cost him a job as a baby photographer, but Jacqueline was able to curtail that by having him donate money to the swear jar.
Patty and Selma Bouvier
Patty and Selma Bouvier, both voiced by Julie Kavner, are Marge's older twin sisters. They work at the Springfield Department of Motor Vehicles, and possess a strong dislike for their brother-in-law, Homer. Selma is the elder by two minutes, possesses a strong desire for family, and has been married and sought to have a child on numerous occasions. Her sister, Patty, is one of the show's few openly gay recurring characters although for the most part she has avoided relationships. Kavner voices them as characters "who suck the life out of everything". Kavner makes Patty's voice more masculine and a lower register, while Selma's voice is a little sweeter. The origins of their names are unknown, Matt Groening has a sister named Patty, but unlike the other Simpson relatives, this has not been explicitly revealed.
Ling Bouvier, voiced by Nancy Cartwright, is Selma Bouvier's adopted daughter. In "Goo Goo Gai Pan", Selma discovers that she has reached menopause and adopts Ling in China, after lying that she is married to Homer, to fool the Chinese authorities into thinking that Ling would be part of a traditional family as opposed to being raised by a single mother. The authorities briefly reclaim Ling, but the adoption agent relates on her experiences of her childhood with her single mother and allows Selma to adopt Ling. Ling has since become a recurring character and has appeared in several episodes.
Gladys Gurney, voiced by Julie Kavner, is Marge's spinster aunt and the sister of Jacqueline. Her death was noted in the episode "Selma's Choice", in which she died of a bowel obstruction. Her final words to Patty and Selma during a video will is a plea that they not end their lives old and alone like herself, prompting Selma to become more intent on having a family.
- Turner 2004, p. 28.
- Oakley, Bill (2005). The Simpsons season 7 DVD commentary for the episode "Home Sweet Homediddly-Dum-Doodily" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt (2003-02-14). Fresh Air. Interview with David Bianculli. National Public Radio. WHYY. Philadelphia. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- BBC (2000). 'The Simpsons': America's First Family (6 minute edit for the season 1 DVD) (DVD). UK: 20th Century Fox.
- Paul, Alan (1999-09-30). "Matt Groening" (Interview). Flux Magazine Issue #6.
- Groening, Matt. (2006). Commentary for "My Sister, My Sitter", in The Simpsons: The Complete Eighth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt (2005). The Simpsons season 6 DVD commentary for the episode "Fear of Flying" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt; Al Jean, Mike Reiss (2001). The Simpsons season 1 DVD commentary for the episode "There's No Disgrace Like Home" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 14.
- Kuipers, Dean (2004-04-15). "'3rd Degree: Harry Shearer'". Los Angeles: City Beat. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
- Turner 2004, p. 21.
- Lee, Luaine (2003-02-27). "D'oh, you're the voices". Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
- Lynn Elber (2007-08-18). "D'oh!: The Voice of Homer Is Deceivingly Deadpan". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
- Carroll, Larry (2007-07-26). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To 'Burns-Sexual' Smithers". MTV. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- Miranda, Charles (2007-12-08). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
- Cartwright, pp. 35–40
- "Bart's voice tells all". BBC News. 2000-11-10. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- Turner 2004, p. 78.
- "There's nobody like him... except you, me, everyone". The Sunday Times (London). 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
- "It's in the dictionary, d'oh!". BBC News, Entertainment (BBC). 2001-06-14. Archived from the original on 2002-12-03. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
- Turner 2004, p. 235.
- "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
- "For Your Consideration". Annie Awards. 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2007-12-03.[dead link]
- Peter Debruge (2008-02-08). "'Ratatouille' nearly sweeps Annies". Variety. Retrieved 2008-02-09.[dead link]
- Randy Shulman (2007-07-26). "Homer's Odyssey". Metro Weekly. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- Peter Sheridan (2004-05-06). "Meet the Simpsons". Daily Express.
- "June Cleaver Chosen As All Time Top TV Mom". CityNews. Retrieved 2008-05-11.[dead link]
- Groening, Matt: Jean, Al (2007). The Simpsons Movie: A Look Behind the Scenes (DVD). The Sun.
- Groening, Matt (2006). The Simpsons The Complete Eighth Season DVD commentary for the episode "My Sister, My Sitter" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Paul, Alan (1995-09-30). "Life in Hell". Flux Magazine.
- Larry Carroll (2007-07-26). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To 'Burns-Sexual' Smithers". MTV. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Bart Simpson". Time. 1998-06-08. Retrieved 2007-05-16.[dead link]
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Bart Simpson". Time. 1990-12-31. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- Griffiths, Nick (2000-04-15). "America's First Family". The Times Magazine. pp. 25, 27–28.
- "Don't lay a finger on his Butterfinger — Nestle USA Inc. Nestle Chocolate and Confections' television advertisements — Brief Article". Prepared Foods at Find Articles. 1998. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
- Turner 2004, p. 173.
- "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can". The Simpsons. Season 14. Episode 303. 2003-02-16. Fox.Lisa yells "Free Tibet!" after winning the school spelling bee.
- Episode DAB-F02
- "She of Little Faith". The Simpsons. Season 13. Episode 275. 2001-12-16. Fox.
- Reiss, Mike (2001). The Simpsons season 1 DVD commentary for the episode "Krusty Gets Busted" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Reiss, Mike (2001). The Simpsons season 1 DVD commentary for the episode "Moaning Lisa" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- W. Reed Moran (2001-11-15). "Lisa Simpson animates environmental awards". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- "Awards for "The Simpsons"". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- "1995 Genesis Awards". hsus.org. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- Turner 2004, p. 327.
- Face to Face: Maggie Simpson EW.com. Published September 11, 1992, Retrieved on March 27, 2007
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 154-155.
- Gimple, pp. 50-51
- Smith, Yeardley (2007). Audio commentary for The Simpsons Movie (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Brooks, James L.; Cartwright, Nancy; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Moore, Rich (2003). The Simpsons The Complete Third Season DVD commentary for the episode "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- McCann, pp. 117–118
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 178-179.
- Planet Cat: A CAT-alog. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2007. p. 102. ISBN 9780618812592.
- Groening, Matt (2002). The Simpsons season 2 DVD commentary for the episode "Old Money".
- Appel, Richard (2005). The Simpsons season 7 DVD commentary for the episode "Mother Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Goldman, Eric; Iverson, Dan; Zoromski, Brian. "Top 25 Simpsons Guest Appearances". IGN. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- Silverman, David (2005). The Simpsons season 7 DVD commentary for the episode "Mother Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Gimple, pp. 86–87
- Martin, Jeff; Archer, Wes (1991-02-21). "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?". The Simpsons. Season 2. Episode 28. Fox.
- Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Martin, Jeff; Reiss, Mike (2002). The Simpsons The Complete second Season DVD commentary for the episode "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Swartzwelder, John; Moore, Rich (1992-08-27). "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 59. Fox.
- Maxtone-Graham, Ian; Moore, Steven Dean (2005-05-01). "The Heartbroke Kid". The Simpsons. Season 16. Episode 17. Fox.
- "Twitter / DannyDeVito: @martinthegrate just did a". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
- Stern, David M.; Affleck, Neil (1999-01-10). "Viva Ned Flanders". The Simpsons. Season 10. Episode 213. Fox.
- Cohen, Joel H.; Nastuk, Matthew (2002-01-06). "Brawl in the Family". The Simpsons. Season 13. Episode 276. Fox.
- Chun, Daniel; Moore, Steven Dean (2006-09-17). "Jazzy and the Pussycats". The Simpsons. Season 18. Episode 380. Fox.
- Oakley, Bill (2006). The Simpsons season 9 DVD commentary for the episode "Lisa the Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Goldreyer, Ned; Dietter, Susie (1998-03-09). "Lisa the Simpson". The Simpsons. Season 9. Episode 195. Fox.
- Payne, Don; Moore, Steven Dean (2005-12-18). "Simpsons Christmas Stories". The Simpsons. Season 17. Episode 365. Fox.
- Cohen, David S.; Dietter, Susie (1996-05-05). "Much Apu About Nothing". The Simpsons. Season 07. Episode 23. Fox.
- Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-096582-7.
- Maxtone-Graham, Ian; Nastuk, Matthew (2004-04-25). "Catch 'Em if You Can". The Simpsons. Season 15. Episode 331. Fox.
- Swartzwelder, John; Kirkland, Mark (2003-11-23). "The Regina Monologues". The Simpsons. Season 15. Episode 04. Fox.
- Brooks, James L.; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Silverman, David. (2002) Commentary for "Bart vs. Thanksgiving", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Oakley, Bill; Weinstein, Josh; Archer, Wes (1994-05-12). "Lady Bouvier's Lover". The Simpsons. Season 05. Episode 21. The Blue and the Gray (The Simpsons)Fox.
- Martin, Jeff; Lynch, Jeffrey (1991-12-26). "I Married Marge". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 12. Fox.
- Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Simon, Sam; Silverman, David (1991-01-31). "The Way We Was". The Simpsons. Season 02. Episode 12. Fox.
- Chun, Daniel; Moore, Steven Dean (2006-09-17). "Jazzy and the Pussycats". The Simpsons. Season 18. Episode 02. Fox.
- Finn, Natalie (2007-11-07). ""Simpsons'" Smithers Part of Shrinking Minority?". E! News. Retrieved 2006-08-22.[dead link]
- Rhodes, Joe. "Flash! 24 Simpsons Stars Reveal Themselves", TV Guide October 21, 2000, via The Simpsons Archive: "[Matt] Groening says: 'My original idea about Marge's family was they were utterly joyless. The original note I gave to Julie was that they suck the life out of everything they see'".
- Jean, Al (2004). The Simpsons The Complete Fourth Season DVD commentary for the episode "Selma's Choice" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- "Matt Groening Q&A (1993)". The Simpsons Archive. June 1993. Retrieved 2007-01-14.
- Talbot, Lawrence; Kramer, Lance (2005-03-15). "Goo Goo Gai Pan". The Simpsons. Season 16. Episode 16. Fox.
- Canning, Robert (2008-09-32). "The Simpsons Flashback: "Goo Goo Gai Pan" Review". IGN. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
- Stern, David M.; Baeza, Carlos (1993-01-21). "Selma's Choice". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 72. Fox.
- Cartwright, Nancy (2000). My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8600-5.
- Gimple, Scott M.; Matt Groening (1999-12-01). The Simpsons Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Continued. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-098763-3.
- Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-096582-7.
- Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia, eds. The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family. Created by Matt Groening; edited by Ray Richmond and Antonia Coffman. (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ASIN 0060952520. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M. ISBN 0-06-095252-0, 978-0-06-095252-5.
- McCann, Jesse L.; Matt Groening (2005). The Simpsons One Step Beyond Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Continued Yet Again. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-081754-2.
- Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ASIN 0679313184. OCLC 55682258. ISBN 0-679-31318-4, 978-0-679-31318-2.
|The Simpsons characters|
|The Simpson family and relatives|
|Springfield Elementary School faculty, staff, and students|
|Springfield Nuclear Power Plant||Villains||Lists|