Snowy Mountains

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This article is about the mountain range in Australia. For the hydro-electric and irrigation scheme, see Snowy Mountains Scheme. For other uses, see Snowy Mountain.
Snowy Mountains
The Snowies
Towards Kosciuszko from Kangaroo Ridge in winter.jpg
Highest point
Peak Mount Kosciuszko
Elevation 2,228 m (7,310 ft)
Coordinates 36°27′S 148°16′E / 36.450°S 148.267°E / -36.450; 148.267
Geography
Worldwind-SnowyMountains.jpg
Worldwind image of Snowy Mountains
Country Australia
State NSW
Range coordinates 36°30′S 148°20′E / 36.5°S 148.33°E / -36.5; 148.33Coordinates: 36°30′S 148°20′E / 36.5°S 148.33°E / -36.5; 148.33
Parent range Australian Alps

The Snowy Mountains, known informally as "The Snowies", is an IBRA subregion and the highest mountain range on the island country/continent of Australia. It contains the Australian mainland's highest mountain, Mount Kosciuszko, which reaches to a height of 2,228 m (7,310 ft) above the ground. The range also contains the five highest peaks on the Australian mainland (including Mount Kosciuszko), all of which are above 2,100 m (6,890 ft). They are located in southern New South Wales and are part of the larger Australian Alps and Great Dividing Range. Unusually for Australia, the mountain range experiences large natural snowfalls every winter. Snow normally falls the most during June, July and early August. Therefore, most of the snow usually melts by late spring. The Tasmanian highlands makes up the other (major) alpine region present in Australia.

The range is host to the mountain plum-pine, a low-lying type of conifer that is suspected of being the world's oldest living plant.[1] It is considered to be one of the centres of the Australian ski industry during the winter months, with all four snow resorts in New South Wales being located in the region.[2]

The Alpine Way and Snowy Mountains Highway are the major roads that through the Snowy Mountains region.

History[edit]

Skiing in Australia began in the goldrush town of Kiandra around 1861.

The mountain range is thought to have had Aboriginal occupation for 20,000 years. Large scale inter-tribal gatherings were held in the High Country during summer for collective feasting on the Bogong moth. This practice continued until around 1865.[3]

The area was first explored by Europeans in 1835, and in 1840, Edmund Strzelecki ascended Mount Kosciuszko and named it after a Polish patriot. High country stockmen followed who used the Snowy Mountains for grazing during the summer months. Banjo Paterson's famous poem The Man From Snowy River recalls this era. The cattle graziers have left a legacy of mountain huts scattered across the area. Today these huts are maintained by the National Parks and Wildlife Service or volunteer organisations like the.[4]

In the 19th century gold was mined on the high plains near Kiandra. At its height this community had a population of about 4,000 people, and ran 14 hotels. Since the last resident left in 1974, Kiandra has become a ghost town of ruins and abandoned diggings.[5]

The Kosciuszko National Park came into existence as the National Chase Snowy Mountains on 5 December 1906. In 1944 this became the Kosciuszko State Park, and then the Kosciuszko National Park in 1967.[6]

Recreational skiing began at Kiandra in the 1860s and experienced a boom in the 20th century following the commencement of the construction of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme between 1949 and 1976 which brought many European workers to the district and opened up access to the ranges.

Skiing[edit]

Sunrise over Mount Jagungal

The discovery of gold at Kiandra (elevation 1,400 m or 4,600 ft), in 1859, briefly enticed a population of thousands above the snowline and saw the introduction of recreational skiing to the Snowy Mountains around 1861.[7] The Kiandra Goldrush was short-lived, but the township remained a service centre for recreational and survival skiing for over a century. Australia's first T-Bar was installed at Kiandra in 1957, but the ski facilities were finally shifted up the hill to Selwyn Snowfields in 1978.[8] Steeper slopes and more reliable snows lie further to the south and in the 20th Century, the focus of recreational skiing in New South Wales shifted southward, to the Mount Kosciuszko region.[9]

Thredbo has the largest vertical drop of any Australian ski resort at 672 m (2,205 ft)

.

The first Kosciuszko Chalet was built at Charlotte Pass in 1930, giving relatively comfortable access to Australia's highest terrain.[10] In 1964, Australia briefly boasted the "World's Longest Chairlift", designed to carry skiers from the Thredbo Valley to Charlotte Pass, but technical difficulties soon closed the facility.[11][12] At 1,760 m (5,774 ft), Charlotte Pass has the highest village base elevation of any Australia ski resort and can only be accessed via over-snow transport in winter.[13] The growing number of ski enthusiasts heading to Charlotte Pass led to the establishment of a cafe at Smiggin Holes around 1939, where horse-drawn sleighs would deliver skiers to be begin the arduous ski to the Kosciusko Chalet.[14] It was the construction of the vast Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme from 1949 that really opened up the Snowy Mountains for large scale development of a ski industry and led to the establishment of Thredbo and Perisher as leading Australian resorts.[14][15] The Construction of Guthega Dam brought skiers to the isolated Guthega district and a rope tow was installed there in 1957.[16]

Skifields up by Kosciusko's side were also established during this period, though their existence is now little realised. The Australian Alpine Club was founded in 1950 by Charles Anton. Huts were constructed in the "Backcountry" close to Mount Kosciusko, including Kunama Hut, which opened for the 1953 season. A rope tow was installed on Mount Northcote at the site and opened in 1954. The site proved excellent for speed skiing, but the hut was destroyed in an avalanche, which also killed one person, in 1956.[17]

Anton also recognised the potential of the Thredbo Valley for construction of a major resort and village, with good vertical terrain. Construction began in 1957.[15] Today, Thredbo has 14 ski-lifts and possesses Australia's longest ski resort run, the 5.9 km from Karel's T-Bar to Friday Flat; Australia's greatest vertical drop of 672m; and the highest lifted point in Australia at 2037 m.[18][19]

The last establishment of a major skifield in NSW came with the development of Mount Blue Cow in the 1980s. In 1987 the Swiss designed Skitube Alpine Railway opened to deliver skiers from Bullocks Flat, on the Alpine Way, to Perisher Valley and to Blue Cow, which also opened in 1987.[14] The operators of Blue Cow purchased Guthega in 1991, and the new combined resort later merged with Perisher-Smiggins to become the largest ski resort in the Southern Hemisphere.[20] In 2009 Perisher had 48 lifts covering 1,245 hectares and four village base areas: Perisher Valley, Blue Cow, Smiggin Holes and Guthega.[14]

Snowy Mountains Scheme[edit]

Map of Snowy Mountains Scheme
Tumut 3 generating station.
The Eucumbene River at Kiandra, upstream from Lake Eucumbene. Snowmelt feeds the lakes of the Scheme.

The Snowy Mountains also feed the Murrumbidgee and Murray rivers from the Tooma River, Whites River and Yarrangobilly River. The range is perhaps best known for the Snowy Mountains Scheme, a project to dam the Snowy River, providing both water for irrigation and hydroelectricity.

The project began in 1949 employing 100,000 men, two-thirds of whom came from thirty other countries during the post-World War II years. Socially this project symbolises a period during which Australia became an ethnic "melting pot" of the twentieth century but which also changed Australia's character and increased its appreciation for a wide range of cultural diversity.

The Scheme built several temporary towns for its construction workers, several of which have become permanent: Cabramurra (the highest town in Australia); and Khancoban. Additionally, the economy of Cooma has been sustained by the Scheme.[citation needed] Townships at Adaminaby, Jindabyne and Talbingo were inundated by the construction of Lakes Eucumbene, Jindabyne and Talbingo.[21][22] Improved vehicular access to the High Country enabled ski-resort villages to be constructed at Thredbo and Guthega in the 1950s by ex-Snowy Scheme workers who realised the potential for expansion of the Australian ski industry.[15]

By 1974, 145 km (90 mi) of underground tunnels and 80 km (50 mi) of aqueducts connected the sixteen dams, seven power stations (two underground), and one pumping station.[23] The American Society of Civil Engineers has rated the Snowy Scheme as "a world-class civil engineering project".

The principal lakes created by the scheme include: Lake Eucumbene, Blowering Dam, Talbingo Dam, Lake Jindabyne and Tantangara Dam.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

The higher regions of the park experience an alpine climate which is unusual on mainland Australia. However, only the peaks of the main range are subject to consistent heavy winter snow. The climate station at Charlotte Pass recorded Australia's lowest temperature of -23.0°C on 28 June 1994.[24]

Glacial lakes[edit]

Lake Cootapatamba in the characteristically U shaped glacial valley, Kosciuszko National Park.

Part of the mountains known as Main Range contains mainland Australia's five glacial lakes.[25] The largest of these lakes is Blue Lake, one of the headwaters of the Snowy River. The other four glacial lakes are Lake Albina, Lake Cootapatamba, Club Lake and Headley Tarn.

During the last ice age, which peaked about 20,000 years ago in the Pleistocene epoch, the highest peaks of the main range near Mount Kosciuszko experienced a climate which favoured the formation of glaciers, evidence of which can still be seen today. Cirques moraines, tarn lakes, roche moutonnées and other glacial features can all be seen in the area. Lake Cootapatamba, which was formed by an ice spilling from Mount Kosciuszko's southern flank, is the highest lake on the Australian mainland. Lake Albina, Club Lake, Blue Lake, and Hedley Tarn also have glacial origins.[26]

There is some disagreement as to exactly how widespread Pleistocene glaciation was on the main range, and little or no evidence from earlier glacial periods exists. The 'David Moraine', a one kilometre long ridge running across Spencers Creek valley seems to indicate a larger glacier existed in this area at some time, however the glacial origin of this feature is disputed.[27]

There is evidence of periglacial activity in the area. Solifluction appears to have created terraces on the north west flank of Mount Northcote. Frost heave is also a significant agent of soil erosion in the Kosciuszko Area.

Ecology[edit]

Snow Gum at tree line along Dead Horse Gap Walk, Kosciuszko National Park.

The Snowy Mountains cover a variety of climatic regions which support several distinct ecosystems. The alpine area above the tree line is one of the most fragile and covers the smallest area. This area is a patchwork of alpine heaths, herbfields, feldmarks, bogs and fens. The windswept feldmark ecotope is endemic to the alpine region, and covers a mere 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft). It is most vulnerable to the wandering footsteps of unmindful tourists.

Fauna[edit]

Many rare or threatened plant and animal species occur within the Snowy Mountains.[28] The Kosciuszko National Park is home to one of Australia's most threatened species (the Corroboree frog). The endangered Mountain Pygmy Possum and the more common Dusky Antechinus are located in the high country of the park.

By 2008, wild horse numbers in the National Park had reached 1,700 with that figure growing by 300 each year, resulting in park authorities coordinating their culling and relocation.[29]

Flora[edit]

The high country is dominated by alpine woodlands, characterised by the Snow Gum. Montane and wet sclerophyll forests also occur across the ranges, supporting large stands of Alpine Ash and Mountain Gum. In the southern Byadbo wilderness area, dry sclerophyll and wattle forests predominate. Amongst the many different native trees in the park, the large Chinese Elm has become naturalised.

The bushfires in 2003 severely damaged tree cover in the region. Fires are a natural feature of the park's ecosystem, but it will take some time for the region to return to its pre 2003 condition.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dead shrubs tell climate secrets". Science Alert. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "Snowy Mountains". Visit NSW. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Kiandra Historical Society
  4. ^ http://www.kosciuskohuts.org.au/ Kosciuszko Huts Association
  5. ^ "DECC Kosciuszko National Park". DECC National Parks website. Retrieved 2009-04-24. 
  6. ^ "Top of Australia hosts park's centenary". ABC News. 5 December 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Selwyn Snowfields - Your Winter Playground - History
  8. ^ Selwyn Snowfields - Your Winter Playground - History
  9. ^ The history of skiing at Kiandra has been the subject of several studies, including 1959's "Historic Kiandra", written by the Kiandra Historical Society and Kiandra Goldfields to Skifields (2006) by Norman W. Clarke
  10. ^ Charlotte Pass Ski Resort - Kosciuszko Chalet Hotel
  11. ^ "Of ice and men". The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 January 2009. 
  12. ^ "NSW Wilderness Red Index". Colong Foundation for Wilderness Ltd. September 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  13. ^ Upe, Robert; Darby, Jim; Holt, Russell; Bredow, Susan (6 June 2009). "50 reasons to love Australian snow". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  14. ^ a b c d "Perisher Resort Statistics and Information". Perisher Resort. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c History | Thredbo Alpine Village, Australia
  16. ^ Christiana Capital : Guthega Ski Resort
  17. ^ History of the Australian Alpine Club
  18. ^ About Thredbo Resort | Snowy Mountains, Australia
  19. ^ "Snowy Mountains - No business like snow business". National Roads and Motorists' Association. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  20. ^ "The History of Perisher". Perisher Resort. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  21. ^ "Adaminaby". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 January 2009. 
  22. ^ "Towns - Jindabyne". Snowy Mountains. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  23. ^ Designated Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks. Retrieved on 28 February 2008.
  24. ^ "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  25. ^ Powell, Greg (1990). The Snowy Mountains: A bushwalker's diary. Hampton, Victoria: Macstyle. p. 10. ISBN 1-875293-08-6. 
  26. ^ West,D.,(1994) Kosciuszko Natural Heritage.
  27. ^ Galloway, RW (1963), Glaciation in the Snowy Mountains: A Re-appraisal
  28. ^ "Kosciuszko National Park : plan of management". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  29. ^ "Environmentalists call for aerial brumby cull". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 

External links[edit]