|- City -|
View of Sochi in spring
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
|Administrative status (as of May 2013)|
|Federal subject||Krasnodar Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Sochi|
|Administrative center of||City of Sochi|
|Municipal status (as of June 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Sochi Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Sochi Urban Okrug|
|Head||Anatoly Pakhomov (acting)|
|Representative body||City Assembly|
|Area||3,505 km2 (1,353 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||343,334 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||52nd|
|Density||98 /km2 (250 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Previous names||Dakhovsky (until 1896)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8622|
Sochi (Russian: Со́чи, IPA: [ˈsot͡ɕɪ]) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia and Russia. Greater Sochi sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334; up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census, making it Russia's largest resort city. It is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.
Sochi will host the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020 subject to the circuit being ready in time. It is also one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative and municipal status
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Climate
- 6 Layout and landmarks
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Sports facilities
- 9 2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics
- 10 Other sports events
- 11 Notable people
- 12 International relations
- 13 Gallery
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
At 145 kilometers (90 mi), Greater Sochi claims to be the longest city in Europe. Other sources using the Caucasus Mountains as the Europe-Asia divide place Sochi in Southwest Asia as it falls on the southern (Asian) side of the Greater Caucasus. Alternatively, Sochi falls within Krasnodar Krai which is politically considered to be entirely European Russia  as with, generally, all territory of Russia west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River. Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from Moscow.
Sochi has a humid subtropical climate with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.
Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Smaller Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus' then the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, the area successively belonged to the kingdom of Lazica and kingdom of Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. From the 11th to the middle of the 19th century it was a part of the Georgian Kingdom. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Göktürks, Khazars, Mongol Empire and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict.
In the 14th–19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the Circassians did not admit the Russian control over Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the Circassian coast (Adyghe: Адыгэ хы аушу ); . Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen.
The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route from Gelendzhik to Gagra, and across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s. In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after.
The last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O.S., where the ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.
After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Circassian Genocide). Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Estonians, Germans, Moldavians, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.
In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874 (O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 (O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.
During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, White movement forces, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, after war Sochi become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs from Tuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.
Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city; Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public. During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. The centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–31). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.
Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the Crimean peninsula (transferred away from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 by Nikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial summer capital of the country. During Vladimir Putin's term in office, the city witnessed a significant increase in investment, although many Russian holidaymakers still flock to the cheaper resorts of neighbouring Abkhazia (Georgia), Ukraine, or to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many treaties, especially those between the Georgian, separatist Abkhazian, and separatist South Ossetian governing authorities.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.
- Michael Archangel Cathedral, a diminutive church built in 1873–1891 to Kaminsky's designs in order to commemorate the victorious conclusion of the Caucasian War.
- The red-granite Archangel Column, erected in 2006 in memory of the Russian soldiers fallen in Sochi during the Caucasian War. It is capped by a 7-metre bronze statue of Sochi's patron saint, Michael the Archangel.
- Sochi Art Museum occupies a large building with a four-columned portico, completed in 1939. The Neoclassical design is by Ivan Zholtovsky.
- Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries and the Mayors Alley—the line of palm-trees planted by the mayors of different cities of the world.
- The Winter Theater (1934–1937) is another rigorously Neoclassical edifice, surrounded by 88 Corinthian columns, with a pediment bearing the statues of Terpsichore, Melpomene and Thalia, all three cast by Vera Mukhina.
- Hall of Organ and Chamber Music. Located centrally in the city of Sochi it conducts organ, symphony, chamber-ensemble, choral, vocal music concerts. All year round local actors of the city art groups, famous Russian and international performers, International Contests Winners and Laureates give concerts here.
- The Maritime Passenger Terminal (1955) is notable for its distinctive 71-meter-high steepled tower and four statues symbolizing the cardinal points.
- The Railway Station (1952) is one of the most remarkable buildings of Sochi.
- The Riviera Park was established by Vasily Alexeyevich Khludov in 1883 in the part of the city which later became known as Khludovskaya. The park is popular with tourists and local residents alike. It has a variety of attractions, including an outcrop of funny statues and a "glade of friendship" where magnolia trees were planted by every Soviet cosmonaut, among other notables.
- The Tree of Friendship is a lemon tree planted by Otto Schmidt in 1934. Multiple cultivars from foreign countries were grafted onto this tree as a token of friendship. The associated museum boasts a collection of 20,000 presents from all over the world.
Lazarevsky City District
Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people. It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising several microdistricts:
- Lazarevskoye, 59 km (37 mi) from the city center, contains a delphinarium, an old church (1903), and a new church (1999). The settlement was founded as a Russian military outpost in 1839 and was named after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev.
- Loo, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, was once owned by Princes Loov, a noble Abkhazian family claiming patrilineal descent from King Anos, whose royal title was sanctioned by Emperor Heraclius in 623 AD. The district contains the ruins of a medieval church, founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 11th century, and converted into a fortress in the Late Middle Ages.
- Dagomys, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, has been noted for its botanical garden, established by order of Nicholas II, as well as tea plantations and factories. A sprawling hotel complex was opened there in 1982. Dagomys adjoins Bocharov Ruchey, a dacha built for Kliment Voroshilov in the 1950s, but later upgraded into a country residence of the President of Russia, where he normally spends his vacations and often confers with leaders of other states.
- Golovinka is a historic location at the mouth of the Shakhe River. Formerly marking the border between the Ubykhs and the Shapsugs, the settlement was noted by Italian travelers of the 17th century as Abbasa. On May 3, 1838, it was the site of the Subashi landing of the Russians, who proceeded to construct Fort Golovinsky where many convicted Decembrists used to serve. The fort was intentionally destroyed by Russian forces at the beginning of the Crimean War, so as to avoid its capture by the enemy.
- Fort Godlik, of which little remains, had a turbulent history. It was built at the mouth of the Godlik River in the Byzantine period (5th to 8th centuries), was destroyed by the Khazars and revived by the Genoese in the High Middle Ages.
Khostinsky City District
Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census. The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars"):
- Matsesta has been a spa since 1902. A 1,316-metre long tunnel, constructed between 1996 and 2000, connects it to Khosta and Sochi proper. The area does not retain many marks of antiquity, although the eponymous river was noted as Masaitica as early as 137 CE, in a letter from Arrian to Emperor Hadrian.
- Kudepsta is another seashore resort, notable for the Vorontsov Caves, stretching for some four kolometers (2.5 miles) away from the shore. There are fourteen entrances to the caves. The largest hall has a length of twenty meters.
- Khosta is an old village, attested in medieval documents as Casto and Khamysh. It contains the ruins of a medieval church, going back to the 14th century, and the comparatively modern Transfiguration Church, consecrated in 1914. Khosta has an array of tourist attractions:
- Khosta Fortress, or rather the ruins thereof, perched on the top of a 100-meter high cliff within six kilometers (3.7 miles) from the sea coast.
- The fortress stands on the grounds of an ancient grove of yews and boxwood, which may be up to 30 mya old. The largest yews attain a height of 50 meters; some are estimated to be 2,000 years old. The grove covers an area of 301 ha and has been affiliated with the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve since 1931.
- The Akhun massif comprises Greater Akhun Mtn. (663 m), Lesser Akhun Mtn. (501 m), and Eagle Bluff (380 m). Greater Akhun is crowned by a Neo-Romanesque limestone tower (1936) that offers glimpses of Pitsunda and Gagra across the border in Abkhazia. There is also a chain of twenty karst caves in the massif.
- The Sochi Arboretum, which goes back to 1889, possesses the most comprehensive collection of subtropical flora in Russia, including 76 species of pine, 80 species of oak, and 24 species of palm.
- The Summer Theatre is a rather ordinary Neoclassical structure, erected in 1937 and extensively renovated in 2001.
Adlersky City District
Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census, is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medieval Genoese trading post.
Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
|Year||Total population||Urban population||Russians||Armenians||Ukrainians||Georgians|
|Source, unless otherwise marked:|
Before 1864 Sochi was a Muslim town. Most residents belonged to the Sunni Muslim Ubykh clans or, in the north, the Sunni Muslim Shapsugs tribe, a part of the Adyghe nation. Currently, Sochi is a predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims living there (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.
Despite this fact, there is no mosque in the city of Sochi, the nearest being around 60 km (37 miles) north of the city center in the Adyghe village of T'hagapsh (Adyghe: Тхьагъапшъ Къоджэ, Tkhag’apsh’ K’odzhe; Russian: Тхагапш, Tkhagapsh). In 2009, President Medvedev promised that a permanent mosque would be built in the city but so far permission has not been given.
Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months — January and February — the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months — July and August — the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November – are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitation is about 1,700 millimeters (67 in). Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees. Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892.
|Climate data for Sochi|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.2
|Average high °C (°F)||9.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.1
|Average low °C (°F)||3.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−13.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||184
|Avg. rainy days||19||18||18||18||16||14||11||10||13||15||17||20||189|
|Avg. snowy days||6||6||3||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||4||20|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||96.1||107.4||145.7||162.0||220.1||258.0||279.0||282.1||225.0||195.3||120.0||86.8||2,177.5|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: HKO for data of sunshine hours|
|9.6 °C (49.3 °F)||8.7 °C (47.7 °F)||9.6 °C (49.3 °F)||11.2 °C (52.2 °F)||15.2 °C (59.4 °F)||19.6 °C (67.3 °F)||24.0 °C (75.2 °F)||25.3 °C (77.5 °F)||23.1 °C (73.6 °F)||19.5 °C (67.1 °F)||14.9 °C (58.8 °F)||11.5 °C (52.7 °F)||16.0 °C (60.8 °F)|
Layout and landmarks
Sochi is almost unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer, when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite.
One of the significant places of Sochi is Friendship Tree that grows in the Friendship Tree Garden.
Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. The Sochi Light Metro is under construction, projected to be completed by 2014. A marine terminal building was built in 1955 by K.S. Alabyan and L.B. Karlik. It is topped with a 71 meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.
Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova and Yevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.
2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics
In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.
This will be Russia's first time to host the Winter Olympic Games, and the first time to host the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, as of 2008, the city has no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition. To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government has committed to a $12 billion investment package, shared 60–40 between the government and private sector. By some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games.
The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors". Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.
The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014. The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion roubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion roubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion roubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.
The coming of 2014 Olympics also urges the construction of a medium capacity rapid transit system, the Sochi Light Metro. The current alignment would connect the Sochi Olympic Village, Sochi International Airport, two major railway stations of Northern Caucasus Railway, the downtown of Sochi, and the Alpine skiing area Krasnaya Polyana.
Other sports events
The Bandy World Championships 2014 will be held in the city at the same time as the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, physicist
- Andre Geim, physicist, inventor of graphene, and 2010 Nobel Prize winner
- Yevgeny Kafelnikov, tennis player
- Daria Kondakova, rhythmic gymnast
- Grigory Leps, singer, songwriter, musician
- Slava Metreveli, Soviet association football player
- Vladimir Nemshilov, Olympic swimmer
- Boris Nemtsov, politician
- Mordechai Spiegler, Russian-Israeli association football player and manager
- Vladimir Tkachenko, basketball player
- Elena Vesnina, tennis player
- Alexey Voyevoda, bobsledder and professional armwrestler
- Kharis Yunichev, the first Soviet male swimmer to win an Olympic medal
Twin towns – sister cities
Sochi is twinned with:
- Explanatory notes
- Reference Information 34.01-707/13-03
- Law #679-KZ
- Exposition of the Historical Museum of Sochi, partly reflected in Russian in История Сочи (History of Sochi) at the official cite of the city
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- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
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- International Olympic Committee (July 4, 2007). "Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games". Retrieved July 4, 2007.
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- Sochi, Russia wins, awarded 2014 Winter Olympics. sportsline.com (July 4, 2007). Retrieved on 2012-07-26.
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- An Open Letter to David Cameron and the IOC. http://www.stephenfry.com/2013/08/07/an-open-letter-to-david-cameron-and-the-ioc/
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- Official website of Sochi (international). The page spotlights similarities of the twin towns to Sochi in that all of them are "summer resorts".
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- Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №679-КЗ от 1 апреля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город-курорт Сочи и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №64–65, 17 апреля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #679-KZ of April 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Resort City of Sochi and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #1756-KZ of June 3, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 – Bell, James Stanislaus
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sochi.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sochi.|
- Official website of Sochi
- Official website of Sochi (another)
- Secrieru, Stanislav: "The 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi: Implications for the Caucasus" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No.19
- Weather Report for Sochi, Russia