Social Insurance Number
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A social insurance number (SIN) is a number issued in Canada to administer various government programs. The SIN was created in 1964 to serve as a client account number in the administration of the Canada Pension Plan and Canada's varied employment insurance programs. In 1967, Revenue Canada (now the Canada Revenue Agency) started using the SIN for tax reporting purposes. SINs are issued by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (previously Human Resources Development Canada).
The SIN is formatted as three groups of three digits (e.g., 123–456–789).
The top of the card has displayed has changed over the years as the departments that responsible for the card has changed:
- Manpower and Immigration
- Employment and Immigration Canada
- Human Resources Development Canada
- Government of Canada
In 2012 the Government of Canada announced plans to stop production of physical SIN cards, citing problems with identity theft.
Through functionality creep, the SIN has become a national identification number, in much the same way that the Social Security Number has in the United States. However, unlike in the US, in Canada there are specific legislated purposes for which a SIN can be requested. Unless an organization can demonstrate that the reason they are requesting a person's SIN is specifically permitted by law, or that no alternative identifiers would suffice to complete the transaction, they cannot deny or refuse a product or service on the grounds of a refusal to provide a SIN. Examples of organizations that legitimately require a SIN include employers, banks and investment companies, and federal government agencies. Giving a SIN when applying for consumer credit, such as buying a car or electronics, or allowing it to be used as a general purpose identification number, such as by a cable company, is strongly discouraged.
The Canadian military used the SIN as a form of unique identifier from the 1960s until the 1980s, when service numbers were reintroduced. Military identification, including ID cards and identity discs were marked with the SIN during this period.
Social Insurance Numbers that begin with the number "9" are issued to temporary residents who are not Canadian citizens or permanent residents (e.g., foreign students, individuals on work visas). These individuals must have an employment authorization in order to work in Canada. SINs beginning with a "9" are different from SINs assigned to citizens and permanent residents, because they have an expiry date (which usually coincides with the expiration of the holder's work authorization). These SINs are invalid unless there is an expiry date listed on the card and the date has not passed.
Social Insurance Numbers can be validated through a simple check digit process called the Luhn Algorithm.
046 454 286 <--- A fictitious, but valid SIN 121 212 121 <--- Multiply each top number by the number below it.
In the case of a two-digit number, add the digits together and insert the result (the digital root). Thus, in the second-to-last column, 8 multiplied by 2 is equal to 16. Add the digits (1 and 6) together (1 + 6 = 7) and insert the result (7).
So the result of the multiplication is:
086 858 276
Then, add all of the digits together:
If the SIN is valid, this number will be evenly divisible by 10.
The first digit of a SIN usually identifies the province in which it was registered, as listed below. However, the government has found it necessary in the past to supply certain regions with SIN numbers assigned to other regions.
- 1: Atlantic Provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland and Labrador (this may also cover overseas residents).
- 2–3: Québec
- 4–5: Ontario (#4 includes overseas forces)
- 6: Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta), Northwest Territories, and Nunavut
- 7: Pacific Region (British Columbia and Yukon)
- 8: Not used
- 9: Temporary resident
- 0: Not used (Canada Revenue may assign fictitious SIN numbers beginning with zero to taxpayers who do not have SINs)
- Canada Revenue Agency
- Government of Canada
- Death Master File, a database of deaths maintained by the Social Security Administration in the U.S.
- Service number (formerly used by the U.S. armed forces, which now use the Social Security number)
- National identification number
- "Protecting your SIN: Who can ask for my SIN". User guidance document from Service Canada website.
- Social Insurance Number FAQ Page
- SIN Privacy FAQ, from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada