Social impact assessment
Social impact assessment (SIA) is a methodology to review the social effects of infrastructure projects and other development interventions.
The origins of SIA largely derive from the environmental impact assessment (EIA) model, which first emerged in the 1970s in the U.S, as a way to assess the impacts on society of certain development schemes and projects before they go ahead - for example, new roads, industrial facilities, mines, dams, ports, airports, and other infrastructure projects. SIA has been incorporated into the formal planning and approval processes in several countries, in order to categorize and assess how major developments may affect populations, groups, and settlements. SIA is often carried out as part of, or in addition to, environmental impact assessment, but it has not yet been as widely adopted as EIA in formal planning systems, often playing a minor role in combined environmental and social assessments.
Definitions for "social impact assessment" vary by different sectors and applications. According to the International Association for Impact Assessment, "Social impact assessment includes the processes of analyzing, monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions. Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment." (International Association for Impact Assessment).
A substantial academic literature has developed around the techniques and the application of SIA, and it is widely taught and practiced. A 2014 book, (Developments in Social Impact Assessment), is a compendium of the 50 key journal articles published since SIA was established. Major consultancy firms offer SIA expertise (which could be offered to 'developers', governments, or campaign organisations). They, and individual skilled practitioners and academics are often called upon to produce SIA reports, particularly in advance of proposed new infrastructure projects. The academic backgrounds of SIA practitioners are diverse, but may include applied sociology, anthropology, geography, development studies, and planning.
Regardless of disciplines, these practitioners all play the roles of project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator.
SIA overlaps with the current interest in monitoring and evaluation (M&E). M&E is carried out after a project or development has gone ahead, to assess impacts and to see how well its goals were met. Evaluation is particularly important in the areas of
- public policy,
- health and education initiatives, and
- international development projects more generally, whether conducted by governments, international donors, or NGOs.
In all these sectors, there is a case for conducting SIA and evaluations at different stages. There is a growing concern that projects of all types (from large dams to the work of small rural development NGOs), are efficiently conducted, do not disadvantage local people, and do not generate negative social and environmental impacts.
Increasingly, there is also a concern that non-experts and local people participate in the design and implementation of proposed developments or programmes. This can be achieved in the process of doing an SIA, through adopting a participatory and democratic research process. Some SIAs go further than this, to adopt an advocacy role. For example, several SIAs carried out in Queensland, Australia, have been conducted by consultants working for local Aboriginal communities who oppose new mining projects on ancestral land. A rigorous SIA report, showing real consequences of the projects and suggesting ways to mitigate these impacts, gives credibility and provides evidence to take these campaigns to the planning officers or to the courts...
- Australia and New Zealand
- European countries
- in international development
- into advocacy
- into other areas
- Manual for Social Impact Assessment Manual of Project Development
- Environmental Impact Assessment
- Health Impact Assessment
- Social Return on Investment
- Equality Impact Assessment
- A listing of the key citations in social impact assessment has been prepared by the International Association for Impact Assessment.
- Barrow, C.J. 2000. Social Impact Assessment: An Introduction. London: Arnold.
- Becker, H and F Vanclay. 2003. The International Handbook of Social Impact Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Becker, H.A., 1997. Social Impact Assessment: Method and Experience in Europe, North America and the developing world. London: UCL Press
- Burdge, Rabel J. 2004. The concepts, process and methods of SIA. Middleton, WI: The Social Ecology Press. ISBN 0-941042-35-9.
- Burdge, Rabel J. 2004. A Community Guide to Social Impact Assessment. Middleton, WI: The Social Ecology Press ISBN 0-941042-17-0.
- Franks, Daniel M. 2011. Management of the Social Impacts of Mining. In Peter Darling (Ed.), SME Mining Engineering Handbook Third ed. Chapter 17.4, pp. 1817–1825. Littleton, Colorado, USA: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration.
- Franks, Daniel, Fidler, Courtney, Brereton, David, Vanclay, Frank and Clark, Phil (2009) Leading practice strategies for addressing the social impacts of resource developments Brisbane, Australia: Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland & Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Queensland Government.
- Franks, Daniel M 2012. Social impact assessment of resource projects. Mining for Development: Guide to Australian Practice, International Mining for Development Centre, Australian Government, University of Queensland and University of Western Australia.
- Franks, D.M. and F Vanclay 2013. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 43, 40–48.
- Hanna, P. & Vanclay, F. 2013. Human rights, Indigenous peoples and the concept of Free, Prior and Informed Consent, Impact Assessment & Project Appraisal, 31(2), 146-157.
- Howitt, Richard 2003. Local and non-specialist participation in impact assessment, in: C.-Q. Liu, Z. Zhao, T. Xiao and J. Guha, Strategic Management of Environmental and Socio-Economic Issues: A Handbook. Guiyang, China, Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, 27-36
- Howitt, R. 2001. Rethinking resource management: justice, sustainability and indigenous peoples. London: Routledge.
- Kemp, D. & Vanclay, F. 2013. Human rights and impact assessment: clarifying the connections in practice, Impact Assessment & Project Appraisal 31(2), 86-96.
- Kirkpatrick, C. and Lee, N., Editors, 1997. Sustainable development in a developing world: Integrating socioeconomic appraisal and environmental assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Mayoux, L & R. Chambers 2005 Reversing the paradigm: quantification, participatory methods and pro-poor impact assessment. Journal of International Development 17(2) 271-298.
- Roche, C. 1999. Impact assessment for development agencies. Learning to value change. Oxford: Oxfam
- Taylor CN, Bryan CH, Goodrich CG. 2004. Social Assessment: theory, process and techniques. Middleton, WI: The Social Ecology Press ISBN 0-941042-37-5.
- Vanclay, F. 1999, ‘Social impact assessment’, in J. Petts (ed.) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (Vol 1), Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 301–26.
- Vanclay, F. 2002a, ‘Conceptualising social impacts’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 22(3), 183–211.
- Vanclay, F. 2002b, ‘Social impact assessment’, in M. Tolba (ed.) Responding to Global Environmental Change, Chichester: Wiley, pp. 387–93.
- Vanclay, F. 2003, ‘International principles for social impact assessment’, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 21(1), 5–11.
- Vanclay, F. 2006, ‘Principles for social impact assessment: a critical comparison between the international and US documents’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26 (1), 3–14.
- Vanclay, F. 2014. Developments in Social Impact Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Vanclay, F. & Esteves A.M. 2011. New Directions in Social Impact Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Wong, CHM, Ho, WC. 2015. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 50(1), 124-133. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2014.09.008
- Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia 2012,'Manual for Social Impact Assessment Manual of Project Developmentt',ISBN 978-983-2839-43-9
- Belgian EU Presidency Summary on Social Impact Assessment
- Website of the SIAhub, a sharing platform for SIA practitioners
- The Social Performance practitioners platform, a community of practice for social performance practitioners working in the extractive industries
- International Principles for Social Impact Assessment (PDF)
- US Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment (PDF)
- International Association for Impact Assessment Wiki - SIA page
- Using Stakeholder Network Analysis in Social Impact Assessment  (PDF)
- Social Impact Assessment - A Discussion Among Grantmakers (The Rockefeller Foundation, The Goldman Sachs Foundation)
- What is social impact assessment? (McKinsey & Company)
- Malaysian Association of Social Impact Assessment (MSIA)
- Kakadu Region Social Impact Study (Australia)