Social programs in Canada
Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside of what the market provides. The Canadian social safety net covers a broad spectrum of programs, and because Canada is a federation, many are run by the provinces. Canada has a wide range of government transfer payments to individuals, which totalled $176.6 billion in 2009. Only social programs that direct funds to individuals are included in that cost; programs such as medicare and public education are additional costs.
In Canada, the entirety of the social provisions of government are called "social programs" (French: programmes sociaux), rather than "social welfare" as in European and British usage. "Welfare" in Canada, like in the United States, colloquially refers to direct payments to low-income individuals only, and not to healthcare and education spending. It is rarely used as the name of any specific program, however, because of its negative connotations, and because the word "welfare" is not easily translated into French. In slang, welfare is also sometimes referred to as "pogey" (Canadian slang), or occasionally "the dole" (slang, as in British usage).
Generally speaking before the Great Depression most social services were provided by religious charities and other private groups. Changing government policy between the 1930s and 1960s saw the emergence of a welfare state, similar to many Western European countries. Most programs from that era are still in use, although many were scaled back during the 1990s as government priorities shifted towards reducing debt and deficit.
All provinces in Canada provide universal, publicly funded healthcare for those services which are considered "medically necessary", with their costs partially subsidized by the federal government. Services which are not "listed" (covered by a provincial insurance plan), or have been "delisted" (removed from the plan) may be purchased privately. Compared to other single-payer health systems in the world, Canada is unusual in banning the purchase of private insurance or care for any services that are listed. This is meant to prevent what is described as "two-tier healthcare", which would allow the rich to "jump the queue". However, in 2005 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in Chaoulli v. Quebec (Attorney General) that the ban on private care could be unconstitutional if it caused unreasonable delays for patients.
In Canada, provinces and territories are responsible for their elementary and secondary schools. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in most provinces, 17 and 18 in others. Both elementary and secondary education is provided at a nominal cost. Private education is available, but its comparatively high costs and the relative quality of public education result in it being less popular than in the United States or Britain. Post-secondary schooling is not free, but is subsidized by the federal and provincial governments. Financial assistance is available through student loans and bursaries.
Canadian mortgages are insured by the federal Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation and most provinces have ministries in charge of regulating the housing market. It was created in the 1940s and in Quebec in 1958.
All provinces maintain a program of this sort known by names such as "social assistance", "income support", "income assistance" and "welfare assistance"; popularly they are known as welfare. The purpose of these programs is to alleviate extreme poverty by providing a monthly payment to people with little or no income. The rules for eligibility and the amount given vary widely between the provinces. The welfare program for low income families exists in all provinces. It was created in the 1940s and in Quebec in 1958. The original plan was for Ottawa to pay half of the financial support for low income families and the other half paid by each of the provinces. Today, because of budgets cuts Ontario and British Columbia are not receiving the percentage that Ottawa had planned in the creation of welfare. As a result, Ottawa is now paying only twenty-nine percent of what it is supposed to be paying these two provinces.
Most Canadian seniors are eligible for Old Age Security, a taxable monthly social security payment. In addition, most former workers can receive Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits based on their contributions during their careers. As well many people have a private pension through their employer, although that is becoming less common, and many people take advantage of a government tax-shelter for investments called a Registered Retirement Savings Plan or may save money privately.
Because Canada is highly regionally disparate, the federal government has several agencies dedicated to developing specific regions. It should also be noted that regional disparities are also a source of tension within other programs listed above, especially healthcare and Employment Insurance.
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
- Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
- Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Regions of Quebec
- Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario
- Western Economic Diversification Canada
Children and families
Usually each province has a department or ministry in charge of child welfare and dealing with adoption, foster care, etc. As of 2007[update] the federal government also offers the Universal Child Care Benefit to subsidize the cost of daycare spots or other forms of childcare.
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The provinces are each responsible for disability welfare.
- L'Arche - Jean Vanier
- Alberta's program is called Assured Income for the Severely Handicapped
- The Ontario government has the Ontario Disability Support Program which offers income and employment assistance for disabled people and the Assistive Devices Program to provide funding to help pay the cost of assistive devices for people with long-term physical disabilities.
- Matthew effect (Sociology)
- Poverty in Canada
- Welfare state
- Social safety net
- Social security
- Social policy
- Government transfer payments to persons, Statistics Canada, 8 November 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- "National Standards and Social Programs: What the Federal Government Can Do (BP379e)". .parl.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Gilles Séguin. "Welfare". Canadian Social Research. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Grady (1991). Missing or empty
- Canada Revenue Agency - UCCB[dead link]
- Herrick, John Middlemist; Stuart, Paul H (2005). Encyclopedia of social welfare history in North America. Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-2584-8.
- Milbourne, Paul (2010). Welfare Reform in Rural Places: Comparative Perspectives. Emerald. ISBN 9781849509183.
- Moscovitch, Allan; Jennissen, Theresa; Findlay, Peter (1983). The welfare state in Canada: a selected bibliography, 1840 to 1978. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-114-5.
- Raphael, Dennis (2007), Poverty and Policy in Canada: Implications for Health and Quality of Life, Canadian Scholars' Press, ISBN 9781551303239
- Turner, Francis Joseph (2005), Encyclopedia of Canadian social work, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 0889204365
- Westhues, Anne (2006). Canadian social policy: issues and perspectives. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-0-88920-504-8.