Socialist Party (Portugal)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Portuguese Socialist Party.
Socialist Party
Partido Socialista
President Carlos César
Secretary-General António Costa
Founder Mário Soares
Founded 19 April 1973 (1973-04-19)
Preceded by Acção Socialista Portuguesa
Headquarters Largo do Rato 2, 1269-143 Lisbon
Newspaper Acção Socialista
Student wing Estudantes Socialistas
Youth wing Socialist Youth
Women's wing Departamento Nacional das Mulheres Socialistas
Membership  (2012) 83,524[1]
Ideology Social democracy[2]
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Progressive Alliance,
Socialist International
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
European Parliament group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Trade union affiliation General Union of Workers
Colors      Pink,      Red
Assembly of the Republic
74 / 230
European
Parliament
8 / 21
Regional
Parliaments
37 / 104
Local
government
929 / 2,086
Website
www.ps.pt
Politics of Portugal
Political parties
Elections

The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pronounced: [pɐɾˈtiðu susiɐˈliʃtɐ]), PS) is a social-democratic[3][4] political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action (Portuguese: Acção Socialista Portuguesa). The PS is one of the two major parties in Portuguese politics, its rival being Social Democratic Party (PSD).

The current leader of the PS is António Costa. José Sócrates, the former Prime Minister of Portugal, was the leader of the party until 5 June 2011. The party has currently 74 of 230 seats in the Portuguese Parliament and lost the June 2011 election. The Socialist Party stands out as about a third of its members in the Assembly of the Republic are women.[citation needed]

Sócrates resigned as General Secretary on election night of 5 June 2011, due to having lost the general election by a margin higher than expected. Seguro was elected as leader of the party on 23 July, winning 68% of the vote against his challenger, Francisco Assis, who got 32%.

PS is a member of the Socialist International, Progressive Alliance and Party of European Socialists, and has eight members in the European Parliament within the Socialists & Democrats (S&D) Group during the eighth parliament.

History[edit]

The Socialist Party (PS) was created at a conference of Portuguese Socialist Action (ASP), at that time in exile, on 19 April 1973, in Bad Münstereifel in West Germany. The twenty-seven delegates decided to found a party of socialism and freedom, making an explicit reference to a classless society and without Marxism, redesigned as a source of principal inspiration.

On 25 April 1974, the Carnation Revolution brought down the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo, established in 1933, and democracy was restored. The general secretary of the PS, Mário Soares, returned to Portugal after being in exile in France, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs, and António de Almeida Santos was appointed Minister of Interjurisdictional Coordination in one of the first provisional governments.

After the Revolution, elections were called for the 25 April 1975 and the Socialist Party (PS) won the 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly and the 1976 elections for the National Assembly, then losing to the Democratic Alliance (AD) in the 1979 legislative election.

In 1980, the PS made an electoral alliance called the Republican and Socialist Front (FRS), between the Independent Social Democrats (ASDI), led by Sousa Franco, and the Leftwing Union for the Socialist Democracy (UEDS), led by Lopes Cardoso. The alliance failed to defeat the AD.

They won the 1983 general election, but without an absolute majority, the Socialists formed a grand coalition with the centre-right Social Democratic Party (PSD), creating a "Central Block". The new government began negotiations for Portugal to enter the European Economic Community (EEC). In 1985 the Central Block broke down and the PS at the time led by Almeida Santos, lost the 1985 legislative election. Cavaco Silva's PSD won the 1985 elections and again in 1987 and 1991 with absolute majority. The PS was in opposition for more than ten years.

In 1995, the Socialist Party, then led by António Guterres, won a general election for the first time in twelve years, and in 1999, they failed to obtain what would have been an historic absolute majority for the party by only one MP. In 2001, after a massive defeat in the 2001 local elections, António Guterres resigned as Prime Minister and called for new elections in 2002. The Socialist Party lost the 2002 general election by a small margin to the PSD, who formed a coalition government with the People's Party (CDS–PP).

In June 2004, the PS won the 2004 European elections by a landslide, and a few weeks later, Durão Barroso, leader of the PSD and Prime Minister, resigned to become President of the European Commission. In December 2004, Jorge Sampaio, President of the Republic, called fresh elections for February 2005. These elections resulted in a landslide victory for the PS, winning for the first time since its foundation an absolute majority. José Sócrates, leader of the PS, became Prime Minister.

In 2009, after four-and-a-half years in power, the PS lost the European Parliament elections to the PSD. However, they won the general election held on 27 September but failed to renew the absolute majority they won in the 2005 election.

The financial crisis of 2011 hit Portugal very hard, prompting Sócrates' government to impose harsh austerity measures. On 23 March 2011, the entire opposition in Parliament said no to new measures proposed by the government. As a result of this, José Sócrates resigned as Prime Minister and a snap election took place on 5 June 2011.

In the elections, the PS suffered a huge setback, with 28.1% of the vote, ten points behind the PSD, who formed another coalition government with the CDS-PP. Sócrates resigned as General Secretary on election night after the PS's worst result since 1987. On 23 July 2011, António José Seguro was elected as Sócrates' successor.

The PS, under the leadership of Seguro, won the 2013 local elections making significant gains over the PSD and the Socialists again won the European elections on May 2014 but this time only just. They won 31.5% of the vote against the almost 28% of the alliance between the PSD and CDS-PP. The result was considered quite a disappointment to many Socialist party members and supporters and on May 27 António Costa, mayor of Lisbon, announces that he will stood for the leadership of the Socialist Party.[5] António José Seguro refused to call a new congress and leadership election and instead called for a primary election, to be held on 28 September, to elect the party's candidate for Prime Minister for the 2015 general elections.[6]

Election results[edit]

Year Party Leader Votes % of votes Seats in the Assembly of the Republic +/– Position in government
1975[A]
Mário Soares
2,162,972
37.87%
116 / 250
Constituent assembly main party
1976
Mário Soares
1,912,921
34.89%
107 / 263
Decrease 9
Government
1979
Mário Soares
1,642,136
27.33%
74 / 250
Decrease 33
Main opposition party
1980
Mário Soares
1,673,279[B][C]
27.76%
66 / 250
Decrease 8
Main opposition party
1983
Mário Soares
2,061,309
36.11%
101 / 250
Increase 35
Government[D]
1985
Almeida Santos
1,204,321
20.77%
57 / 250
Decrease 44
Main opposition party
1987
Vítor Constâncio
1,262,506
22.24%
60 / 250
Increase 3
Main opposition party
1991
Jorge Sampaio
1,670,758
29.13%
72 / 230
Increase 12
Main opposition party
1995
António Guterres
2,583,755
43.76%
112 / 230
Increase 40
Government
1999
António Guterres
2,385,922
44.06%
115 / 230
Increase 3
Government
2002
Ferro Rodrigues
2,068,584
37.79%
96 / 230
Decrease 19
Main opposition party
2005
José Sócrates
2,588,312
45.03%
121 / 230
Increase 25
Government
2009
José Sócrates
2,077,238
36.56%
97 / 230
Decrease 24
Government
2011
José Sócrates
1,566,347
28.05%
74 / 230
Decrease 23
Main opposition party
^A Constituent assembly election.
^B In the Republican and Socialist Front coalition. Total count includes coalition votes and Social Party's votes in the Azores and Madeira where it ran alone.
^C 63 of the 71 coalition seats were allocated to the Socialist Party. A further 3 seats were awarded to the Socialist Party due to its lone run in the Azores and Madeira.
^D Election winner. Formed coalition government with runners-up Social Democratic Party.

European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of overall
votes
 % of overall
vote
# of overall
seats won
+/– Notes
1987 1,267,672 22.5 (#2)
6 / 24
1989 1,184,380 28.5 (#2)
8 / 24
Increase 2
1994 1,061,560 34.9 (#1)
10 / 25
Increase 2
1999 1,493,146 43.1 (#1)
12 / 25
Increase 2
2004 1,516,001 44.5 (#1)
12 / 24
Steady 0
2009 946,818 26.5 (#2)
7 / 22
Decrease 5
2014 1,033,158 31.5 (#1)
8 / 21
Increase 1

List of important people[edit]

Mário Soares, founder, Prime Minister 1976–1978 and 1983–1985.
António Guterres, Prime Minister from 1995 to 2002.
José Sócrates, Secretary General of the PS 2004-2011 and Prime Minister 2005-2011.
António Costa, Mayor of Lisbon since 2007 and the current Secretary-General of the Socialist Party.
Carlos César (here with Barack Obama and José Sócrates), President of the Government of the Azores from 1996 to 2012 and the current President of the Socialist Party.

Pedro Passos Coelho José Sócrates Pedro Santana Lopes José Manuel Durão Barroso António Guterres Aníbal Cavaco Silva Francisco Pinto Balsemão Francisco Sá Carneiro Mário Soares António Costa António José Seguro José Sócrates Ferro Rodrigues António Guterres Jorge Sampaio Vítor Constâncio Almeida Santos Mário Soares

Secretaries-General[edit]

Party Presidents[edit]

Presidents of the Assembly[edit]

Prime Ministers[edit]

Presidents of the Republic[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]