Socialist Republic of Macedonia

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Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Социјалистичка Република Македонија
Constituent republic of Yugoslavia

1943–1991
Flag Emblem
Macedonia within Yugoslavia
Capital Skopje
Languages Macedonian
Government Socialist republic
Historical era Cold War
 -  Second Session of the AVNOJ
29 November 1943
 -  End of World War II 8 May 1945
 -  Breakup of Yugoslavia 1991
Area
 -  1991 25,713 km² (9,928 sq mi)
Population
 -  1991 est. 2,033,964 
     Density 79.1 /km²  (204.9 /sq mi)
Currency Yugoslav dinar

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija') was one of the 6 republics forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation-state of the Macedonians.[1][2][3] After the transition of the political system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Republic changed its official name to Republic of Macedonia in 1991,[4] and with the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia, it declared itself an independent country on September 8, 1991.

History[edit]

The first Macedonian state was proclaimed under the name Democratic Macedonia[5] (Macedonian: Демократска Македонија, Demokratska Makedonija) at the First Plenary Session of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia during the National Liberation War of Macedonia in World War II. It was set up on August 2, 1944 in the Bulgarian occupation zone in Yugoslavia.[6][7] This date is now celebrated by ethnic Macedonians as the day they were first allowed to freely state their nationality. It was chosen intentionally, as it was the date of the Ilinden Uprising against the Ottoman rule in 1903.

The most important assembly decisions are the proclaiming Macedonia nation-state of ethnic Macedonians and proclamation of Macedonian as the official language. The citizens of Macedonia, regardless of their ethnic affiliation, were guaranteed all civil rights, including right to their mother tongue and confession of faith. However, Vardar Macedonia was de facto liberated from the Germans in November 1944.

In 1945, the state changed its official name to the People's Republic of Macedonia. It was formally incorporated as a constituent republic in the Yugoslav Federation in 1946. However, some people were against the federation and demanded greater independence from the federal authorities, leading to their prosecution. One of the notable victims of these purges was the first president, Metodija Andonov - Čento. More purges followed after the Tito-Stalin split.

The state was formed on the territory of Vardar Macedonia, a part of the wider region of Macedonia, which was divided between several countries in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913. Some ethnic Macedonian politicians from the republic advocated the idea of United Macedonia, which would include Aegean Macedonia and Pirin Macedonia. The idea was somewhat supported by the federal Yugoslav authorities on some occasions, or repressed, depending on the regional and international political constelation.

In 1963, the name of the state was changed to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Constitution[edit]

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, 1974 - Official Gazette (Macedonian)

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia, which was defined as a nation-state of the ethnic Macedonians and also, a state of its ethnic minorities, had some powers normally associated with an independent state. The Constitution also recognised the right of self-determination and secession. The borders of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia could only be changed by a decision of the republic's parliament. Its inhabitants held both Yugoslav citizenship and an internal Macedonian citizenship for state business.

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia had its own constitution, presidency, government, parliament, official language, state symbols, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Secretariat of Internal Affairs (Interior ministry), Bureau for Foreign Relations (a Ministry of Foreign Affairs)[8] and other state prerogatives. Also, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia had its own Territorial Defence armed forces (Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, Teritorijalna odbrana).[9]

System[edit]

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia was a single-party communist state, the ruling political party was the League of Communists of Macedonia (in Macedonian: Сојуз на Комунистите на Македонија, Sojuz na Komunistite na Makedonija, abbreviation: СКМ, SKM). Being a constituent country of SFR Yugoslavia, a leading founder of the Non-Aligned Movement, SR Macedonia pursued a neutral foreign policy and maintained a more liberal communist system compared to the other communist states. The ruling ideology was based on Titoism and Workers' self-management (Macedonian: самоуправување, samoupravuvanje).

Minorities[edit]

While the ethnic Macedonians were the majority and were one of the constituent nations of SFR Yugoslavia (official term: narod) the rights of the ethnic minorities (official term: narodnosti) were guaranteed by the Constitution. The official language of SR Macedonia was Macedonian,[10] however Macedonian Albanians and Macedonian Turks had the right to use their own languages within the school system and the media.[11] The constitution of the SR Macedonia defined the state as the national state of the Macedonians, but also as the state of Albanians and Turks.[11]

Religion[edit]

Although the ruling communists discouraged religion, religious freedom was allowed to a certain extent. The authorities allowed the existence of the Macedonian Orthodox Church, which proclaimed autocephaly in 1967. In 1972 the construction of the largest orthodox church St. Clement of Ohrid in the capital of Skopje began. Muslims, Catholics, Protestants and other religious communities also could maintain their own organisations and temples.

Geography[edit]

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia was the 4th largest constituent country of SFR Yugoslavia both by area and population. Within Yugoslavia, it had an internal border with the Socialist Republic of Serbia in the north and its subunit the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo in the north-west and international borders with Greece in the south, the People's Republic of Bulgaria in the east and the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in the west.

Transition[edit]

During the Breakup of Yugoslavia in 1990, the form of government peacefully changed from socialist state to parliamentary democracy. The first pluralist elections were held on November 11, 1990. The once ruling communist party took a reformist direction and renamed itself League of Communists of Macedonia - Party for Democratic Change led by Petar Gošev. After the head of the last communist presidency Vladimir Mitkov[12] resigned, Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on January 31, 1991.[13] On April 16, 1991, the parliament adopted a constitutional amendment removing "Socialist" from the official name of the entity, and on June 7, 1991, the same year, the new name, Republic of Macedonia, was officially established.[4] After the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia began, Macedonia issued a Sovereignty Declaration on January 25, 1991[14] and later, proclaimed itself a fully independent country, following a referendum held on September 8, 1991.

The Republic of Macedonia is the legal successor to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Heads of Institutions[edit]

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Republic of Macedonia
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Chronological
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Presidents of ASNOM[edit]

Presidents of Presidency of Parliament[edit]

Presidents of Parliament[edit]

Presidents of Presidency[edit]

Prime Ministers[edit]

President[edit]

This post was established in 1991 after the dissolution of the collective presidency

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, 1974 - Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian)
  2. ^ Устав Федеративне Народне Републике Југославије (1946), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on October 19, 2007. (Serbo-Croatian)
  3. ^ Устав Социјалистичке Федеративне Републике Југославије (1963), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on October 19, 2007. (Serbo-Croatian)
  4. ^ a b On This Day - Macedonian Information Agency - MIA, see: 1991 (Macedonian)
  5. ^ Constitutional History of the Republic of Macedonia by Dr. Cvetan Cvetkovski, Faculty of Law, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  6. ^ Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810855658,p. 240.
  7. ^ The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building And Legitimation, 1918-2005, Sabrina P. Ramet, Indiana University Press, 2006, ISBN 0253346568, p. 139-140.
  8. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Macedonia Official Site
  9. ^ Ministry of Defence of Republic of Macedonia
  10. ^ РЕШЕНИЕ на Антифашиското собрание на народното ослободуене на Македонија за заведуене на македонскиот јазик како службен јазик во македонската држава (Rješenje Antifašističkog sobranja narodnog oslobođenja Makedonije o uvođenju makedonskoga jezika kao službenog jezika u državi Makedoniji), dokument br. 8, 2. kolovoza 1944., Prohor Pčinjski, Metodije Andonov Čento (predsjedatelj ASNOM)
  11. ^ a b Spasov, Ljudmil; Arizankovska, Lidija. Hierarhizacija jezikov v Republiki Makedoniji in Republiki Sloveniji glede na jezikovno politiko Evropske unije, (161. – 169.) u: Vidovič-Muha, Ada. (ur.) Slovenski knjižni jezik – aktualna vprašanja in zgodovinske izkušnje : ob 450-letnici izida prve slovenske knjige, Zbirka »Obdobja – metode in zvrsti« (vol. 20, ISSN 1408-211X), Center za slovenščino kot drugi/tuji jezik pri Oddelku za slovenistiko Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 2003., ISBN 961-237-057-5, str. 163., 164.

    Prvi člen Ustave SR Makedonije (Ustav na SRM, 1974) je SRM definiral kot nacionalno državo makedonskega naroda ter albanske in turške narodnosti v njej. V členih 220 in 222 je bilo zapisano, da ljudje lahko prosto uporabljajo svoj jezik in pisavo za izražanje in razvijanje svoje kulture.

    —Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 163.

    Poleg tega so makedonske (in slovenske) javne osebe v okvirih SFRJ (zunaj SR Makedonije oziroma SR Slovenije) zelo redko upoštevale pravico do uporabe svojega jezika v javnem sporazumevanju, in to je dajalo vtis, da je edini uradni jezik na ravni države SFRJ srbohrvaščina.

    —Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 164.
  12. ^ Faculty of Law, University of Skopje (Macedonian)
  13. ^ a b Kiro Gligorov was elected president on January 31st 1991, when SR Macedonia was still an official name of the nation. After the change of the state's name, he continued his function as a President of the Republic of Macedonia - The Official Site of The President of the Republic of Macedonia
  14. ^ Sovereignty Declaration - Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°00′N 21°26′E / 42.000°N 21.433°E / 42.000; 21.433