Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras
|Full name||Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras|
|Nickname(s)||Alviverde (Green and White)
Verdão (Big Green)
Academia de Futebol (Academy of Football)
|Founded||August 26, 1914, as Palestra Italia|
|Stadium||Allianz Parque, São Paulo|
|Head coach||Oswaldo de Oliveira|
|League||Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
|Website||Club home page|
Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (Portuguese pronunciation: [pawˈmejɾɐs]) is a Brazilian football club from São Paulo. The club was founded on August 26, 1914, as Palestra Italia (pronounced: [paˌlɛstɾiˈtaliɐ]), but changed to the current name on September 14, 1942. It is one of the most popular and successful Brazilian clubs, with almost 17 million supporters, including a large number of Brazilians of Italian ancestry. Despite being primarily an association football team, Palmeiras competes in a number of different sports, most notably basketball. The football team plays in the Campeonato Paulista,[nb 1] the state of São Paulo's premier state league, as well as in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A,[nb 2] the top tier of the Brazilian football league system.
Palmeiras is one of the most successful clubs in Brazilian football. The team has won 11 national competitions, a record in the country. The club's most important titles have been the 8 national league titles (4 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 2 Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa and 2 Taça Brasil) and 3 national cups (2 Copa do Brasil and 1 Copa dos Campeões).
Their international titles include one Copa Libertadores. The team won the competition in 1999, after beating Deportivo Cali of Colombia. In 1951, Palmeiras won the international Copa Rio, known as the first world club association football tournament, after beating Juventus of Italy. In 1999, the team was declared the Champion of the Century in Brazilian football.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Foundation and name
- 1.2 Palestra is born – opening game
- 1.3 1920–1930 – First title and purchase of the stadium
- 1.4 A Leader Dies, A Champion is Born
- 1.5 1951 – First World Championship
- 1.6 The Academy, The Brazilian giant
- 1.7 1980s: The lost decade
- 1.8 The End of the 20th Century – The Greatest in Brazil
- 1.9 1999 – Libertadores Cup Winners
- 1.10 2000 – 4 Final Championship Matches
- 1.11 The new millennium
- 1.12 Arena Palestra Itália
- 1.13 2012 – Copa do Brasil Undefeated Winners
- 1.14 New relegation and new return to elite
- 2 Stadium
- 3 Club colors
- 4 Supporters
- 5 Players
- 6 Technical staff
- 7 Kit manufacturer
- 8 Shirt partner
- 9 Presidents
- 10 Honours
- 11 Palmeiras B Team
- 12 Other sports
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Foundation and name
Palmeiras was founded on August 26, 1914, initially as Palestra Italia, by Luigi Cervo, Vicenzo Ragognetti, Luigi Emanuele Marzo and Ezequiel Simone, four Italian men who were members of the Italian community of São Paulo. Its original colors were red, white and green (those of Italy). During the World War II, Brazil entered the war supporting the Allies and its dictatorship along with the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB) forced Palestra Italia (and also Palestra Italia of Minas Gerais) to change its name because of the reference to Italy. The original badge (a white ornamental "P" in a green shield) is still present in the current one, and the club has used red as a third color (mostly in friendly games during the club's 75th anniversary).
Palestra is born – opening game
At the beginning of the 20th Century, several young Italians decided to start a club whose main goal was to form a football team that would be representative of the Italian community, and face the big names of São Paulo's Football elite. Just over three decades earlier, Italy had been unified – a fact that was not known to some Italian-Brazilians and to some non-Italian Brazilians.
There were numerous Italian clubs, but each one represented an Italian Province or was geared to activities other than football. At the time, the game was starting to take hold and drew many players and fans.
The founders of the club sought out the Fanfulla newspaper, which was the media mouthpiece that defended the interests of Italians in Brazil, and entrusted young Vincenzo Ragognetti – another supporter of the idea – to draft an invitation to those interested in forming a sports club.
After several meetings, 46 interested individuals (led by Luigi Marzo and Luigi Cervo) gathered at the Alhambra Room on what is now Rua do Riachuelo, and founded a sports club for all Italian-Brazilians named "Palestra Italia". Ezequiel Simone was named club president. The Italian Consulate in São Paulo became interested in the new club because it would help spread the word among Italians that their country now had one flag and one anthem.
After some initial difficulties, Palestra Italia played its first game in the town of Votorantim (São Paulo State) – beating Savoy 2–0 with goals from Bianco and Alegretti to win the Savoy Cup.
1920–1930 – First title and purchase of the stadium
In 1916, the team joined the city's main sports league and held its first official championship match. The following year it would be runner-up in the São Paulo State Championship, facing Corinthians for the first time. Palestra won that initial game 3–0 with three goals from Caetano; it also won the rematch 3–1 of what would become the team's chief rivalry. In 1920, Palestra Italia captured the São Paulo State championship with a victory over the rugged Paulistano squad in the deciding match.
Palestra continued to grow as a sports club and also began acquiring more assets. Estádio Palestra Itália, purchased in 1920, was remodeled and expanded in 1933 – when it became the first Brazilian stadium with concrete grandstands and barbed-wire fences. Starting in 1964, the playing field would be suspended, which gave fans a complete, broad view and also created space in the lower levels.
The club continued to grow and won more championships, and at the outset of the 1930s became the three-time São Paulo State football and basketball champion – a feat which prompted Palestra fans to chant in celebration: "With the feet or with the hands, Palestra is the best in the land."
A Leader Dies, A Champion is Born
In 1942 during World War II, the government of President Getúlio Vargas made a decree banning any organization from using names related to the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan). Palestra Italia was compelled to change its name, and became Palestra São Paulo. "Palestra" is a Greek word that did not violate the government measure. However, the change did not soothe political and sporting pressures. Under penalty of forfeiting all its assets to another club and facing ejection from the championship that it currently led, Palestra was forced to change its name a second time. The night before the last game of the State championship, scheduled for 20 September 1942, the Palestra board of directors held a heated meeting and changed the club's name. When the debate reached its peak, Dr. Mario Minervino took the floor and asked club Secretary, Dr. Pascoal W. Byron Giuliano, to note in the minutes:
– "They don't want us to be Palestra, so then we shall be Palmeiras – born to be champions."
Tensions flared during the final league match, where Palmeiras' opponent was São Paulo Futebol Clube (SPFC) which was laying claim to the assets of the former Palestra Italia.
Palmeiras took the field carrying the Brazilian flag under the leadership of army Captain Adalberto Mendes. Palmeiras was leading the score by 3–1 when a penalty was called in its favor. At that moment, the SPFC ordered its players to consider the Palmeiras squad an enemy of the homeland and pulled its side off the field amid jeers from even the club's own fans. The celebrations began on the spot. The next day, newspapers contained a photograph of Palmeiras entering the field with the headline: "A Leader Dies, A Champion is Born."
1951 – First World Championship
In January 1951, the Brazilian sports newspaper O Globo Sportivo ran a lead story reporting that FIFA President Jules Rimet would grant unconditional support to holding a world club championship in Rio de Janeiro.
The first World Club Championship was held in 1951, with the participation of eight squads, divided into two brackets of four teams apiece: Vasco da Gama (Brazil), Austria Vienna (Austria), Nacional (Uruguay), and Sporting Lisbon (Portugal), playing in Rio; and Palmeiras (Brazil), Juventus (Italy), Red Star (Yugoslavia), and Olympique (France) playing in São Paulo. As it happened, FIFA would adopt this same number of teams, seed-city system, and tournament model for the World Club Championship in 2000.
The zeal to compete in this contest was such that the Uruguayan Football Association issued a directive signed by all first division team bosses on June 15, 1951 suspending its national championship from June 25 to July 27, so that a sufficiently strong Nacional team could represent the 1950 World Cup champs.
Palmeiras and Juventus played in the final, held over two matches. Palmeiras managed to win one game and tied the other to win the Rio Cup – the first ever World Club Championship.
The Academy, The Brazilian giant
In the 1960s, the standard of quality of Palmeiras play – led by the one who would come to symbolize this period of football excellence, Ademir da Guia – led the Palestra Italia team to be called the "Academy" of Brazilian football.
Headed by Filpo Nunes, Palmeiras players won the most important national competition in 1965, the Rio – São Paulo championship, with stand-out performances. Blow-outs against top rivals included seven goals scored against Santos, five against Botafogo in their home stadium of Maracanã, five against São Paulo, and another four scored against Vasco. The title came to Palmeiras in another lopsided victory against Botafogo at Pacaembú Stadium in São Paulo.
That same year, the Brazilian Sports Federation (CBD) used the entire Palmeiras roster to launch Minerão Stadium and represent Brazil in an official national team match against Uruguay for the Inconfidência Cup. The day that it donned the green and white, Palmeiras as Brazil was victorious 3–0 over the Uruguayan blue.
In the previous year, Palmeiras had won the Rio de Janeiro Quadricentennial Cup by beating the Paraguayan national team 5–2 and besting Peñarol of Uruguay in the final.
At the end of the 1970s, Palmeiras won the Copa do Brasil and the Roberto Gomes Pedrosa tournament – the Brazilian Championship equivalent at the time. These victories laid the groundwork for the second Palmeiras Academy, with players like Luís Pereira, Leivinha, Emerson Leão, Dudu and César.
Led by Oswaldo Brandão, the team captured several titles in the 1970s. It was three-time São Paulo State champion – emerging undefeated in one of those tournaments – two-time Brazilian Champion, three-time winner of Spain's Ramón de Carranza Trophy, and winner of Argentina's Mar del Plata Trophy – considered the South American Club Championship.
1980s: The lost decade
Accustomed to victories at the "Academy" in the 1960s and 1970s, Palmeiras fans saw the 1980s come and go without championships or titles. In 1986, Palmeiras fielded a good team – routing Corinthians 5–1 and playing an historic game in the semifinals of the São Paulo State Championship against that same rival, prevailing 3–0. The team had arrived at the final of the State Championship – 10 years after winning its last State title – but lost to Inter de Limeira.
On October 29, 1986, Palmeiras fans adopted the "Pig" as their mascot. At a game against Santos, the rival fans were chanting "pig"; the Palmeiras crowd responded with "Come On Pig!! Come On Pig!! Olé Olé Olé..." and "Go Piiiig...." A few days later, Placar sports magazine popularised the new nickname when it published an issue with Jorginho Putinatti – the symbol of that generation – holding a pig in his lap.
There were two noteworthy events during this decade. In the 1983 State Championship against Santos, referee José de Assis Aragão scored a goal for Palmeiras in the 47th minute of the second half. Striker Jorginho kicked inside the penalty area, the ball was on its way out but it hit Aragão – who was on the goal line about a meter from the goal and went into the Santos net. The game ended in a 2–2 tie – much to the chagrin of Santos.
The second unexpected event occurred on November 11, 1988, when striker Gaúcho defended two penalties against Flamengo in a game for the Brazilian Championship at Maracanã. Gaúcho was put in goal after keeper Zetti broke a leg in the final minutes of the match. The game ended in a tie, and advanced to the penalty shootout phase. During the shootout, Gaúcho stopped two shots, from Aldair and Zinho. To cap off the evening, he scored a penalty himself while wearing the goalkeeper's jersey.
In 1989, Palmeiras had another chance to celebrate a title. Undefeated until the second last match, the team was eliminated when it lost to Bragantino in the semifinals of the São Paulo State Championship. The 1980s ended without significant victories, but the 1990s would make up for that.
The End of the 20th Century – The Greatest in Brazil
Palmeiras found itself in a fifteen-year hiatus without any significant trophies until 1992, when the club signed a sponsorship deal with Italian dairy giant Parmalat. The deal lasted for eight years and quickly turned Palmeiras into Brazil's richest club.
In the 1990s, Palmeiras enjoyed countless sporting achievements, winning numerous important titles. In the first full year of the relationship, the team won the São Paulo State Championship in 1993. That same year, it also captured the Rio-São Paulo Championship and the Brazilian Championship. The next year, it achieved the unprecedented feat of becoming two-time State Champion and two-time Brazilian Champion.
Palmeiras also won the Mercosur Cup and the Brazil Cup – both in 1998. In 1996 it handily won the State Championship, scoring more than 100 goals. It would also win the Champions' Tournament against top Brazilian clubs (in 2000).
Featuring players with tremendous technical prowess like Edmundo, Evair, Zinho, Rivaldo, Alex, and César Sampaio, Palmeiras won other international tournaments – culminating with victory at the Libertadores de América Cup in 1999; an accomplishment ranking among the biggest in the club's history.
Having won key national and international competitions, Palmeiras was proclaimed Brazilian football's Best Team of the 20th Century of Brazil by the São Paulo State Football Federation (FPF), newspapers Folha and Estado de São Paulo, and Placar magazine rankings.
1999 – Libertadores Cup Winners
Famous coach Luiz Felipe Scolari led the team to one of the club's most important titles: The 1999 Libertadores Cup. The final match was against Deportivo Cali from Colombia. Important players from that team were World Cup winners Marcos, Zinho and Roque Júnior, as well as Alex, Evair, Paulo Nunes and César Sampaio. In the first leg, in Cali, Deportivo beat Palmeiras 1–0. In the second leg, at Estádio Palestra Itália, Palmeiras beat Deportivo 2–1 and won the competition in the penalty shootout.
2000 – 4 Final Championship Matches
In 2000, Palmeiras disputed 4 Final Championship Matches. At first, the team won the Rio-São Paulo Tournament after beating Vasco da Gama in the final. In the first leg, in Rio de Janeiro, Palmeiras beat Vasco 2–1. In the second leg, at Estádio do Morumbi, the club from São Paulo beat Vasco 4–0.
The club again reached the Libertadores Cup final, this time against Boca Juniors from Argentina. In the first leg, in Buenos Aires, the game ended 2–2. In the second leg, at Morumbi stadium, in São Paulo, the game ended 0–0 and Boca won the competition in the penalty shootout.
The new millennium
Parmalat sponsorship ended in 2000 and left the club in dire straits. After a mildly irregular season in 2001 — the biggest achievement was a Libertadores Cup semifinal against Boca Juniors— the club faced its worst year ever in 2002 and was relegated to the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, which it won in the following year, returning to the First Division in 2004.
The 2004 and 2005 seasons were rather successful when the team qualified for the Libertadores Cup but unfortunately was sent home before the end of the championship.
In 2008, Palmeiras made a sponsorship agreement with Traffic, a Sports Marketing Agency. The club made some big investments on some big name players and also on coach Wanderley Luxemburgo. This new strategy paid off with a 22nd Paulista Championship.
Also in 2008, Palmeiras won the São Paulo State Cup with a 5–0 victory over Ponte Preta. Palmeiras finished 4th in the Campeanato Brasileiro, which qualified them to the 2009 edition of the Copa Libertadores.
Arena Palestra Itália
The year 2008 also marked the beginning of the planning phase for a new stadium for the club, as well as remodeling the social club, to prepare Palmeiras for both the centenary of the club, and the World Cup, in 2014. The planned arena will seat 42,000 fans or 60,000 people at events like concerts, and will consist of fully covered spectator seating. It is planned to open in October 2013. In 2008 Palmeiras once again won the Campeonato Paulista and qualified for the Copa Libertadores.
In 2009 Palmeiras were close to the Brazilian championship, but political problems inside the club caused internal turmoil and affected on-field performances, and Palmeiras finished the League in the 5th position.
2012 – Copa do Brasil Undefeated Winners
New relegation and new return to elite
However, less than 3 months later Scolari would leave the club that lingered in 19th place in the Brasileirão. This way, Palmeiras signed with Gilson Kleina, then coach of Ponte Preta, but the team failed to improve its performances in tournament and was relegated to the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, for the second time since 2002, in its history, after a draw against Flamengo, on November 18, in round 36 of the 2012 Série A.
The following year, now under the administration of President Paulo Nobre and a campaign with clear superiority against the others teams, Palmeiras went back to the first division with six games to spare, ensuring participation in Serie A in 2014, the year of the club's centenary.
Estádio Palestra Itália was home of Palmeiras from 1917 to 2010. The venue is also known as Parque Antártica because the area was a park built by the Antarctica Paulista Company in the beginning of the last century, before being acquired by Palmeiras in 1920. In the past its capacity was listed as 35,000 spectators. However, even though its grandstands were extended in the late 1990s, it currently only seats 27,640 people due to regulations which enforce safety and comfort.
It was one of the most important Brazilian grounds, considering the amount of decisive and important matches played there. Examples of matches played in Palestra Itália include 1999 Copa Libertadores final, the Copa Mercosur finals of 1998, 1999 and 2000, 1996 Copa do Brasil final and several Campeonato Paulista finals.
The last official match played in the stadium was against Grêmio for the Série A on on May 22, 2010, and the last match played was a friendly against Boca Juniors on July 9, 2010.
At this moment, Palmeiras plays its home games at Estádio do Pacaembu.
The Allianz Parque will hold up to 43,000 seats and will be ready for November 2014. The project is billed as a multipurpose events arena. Capacity will be increased to 43,000 seats plus 2,000 press staff for football matches. Many other facilities will be in place, including enhanced parking area, VIP area, 3 restaurant and bar, heliport, etc.
Palmeiras' first kit consisted of green jerseys, white shorts and green socks. Palmeiras' first jersey was green with a horizontal white band, and a red and white Savoy cross as the crest. Palmeiras have played in blue shirts twice as a tribute to the Italian National Team. Their supporters are also well known for creating the mancha verde (green spot) of fog and smoke when Palmeiras is entering the pitch.
From 2007 to 2009 Palmeiras used a third jersey: a light yellow shirt with a dark green shorts and socks.
In 2010 Palmeiras the light yellow jersey became the second jersey, and started using a blue and white shirt, with white shorts, for their third jersey.
Originally, Palmeiras was a club heavily supported by Brazilians of Italian descent. Over time, that distinction has reduced, and today the fan base is very diverse.
Palmeiras' biggest rival is Corinthians. The rivalry between the two clubs is considered one of the most intense in Brazil, and their matches are known as the Paulista Derby. São Paulo is another local rival; the games between the two clubs are called the Choque-Rei (King Clash). Palmeiras was featured heavily in the film O Casamento de Romeu e Julieta where the rivalry between Palmeiras and Corinthians played a major role in the plot.
The club's official mascot is a green parakeet.
During the late 1960s, fans of Palmeiras' biggest rivals Corinthians would mockingly refer to the team as "Pig", (Porco in Portuguese, a slur used by the elite directed to Italians or Italo-Brazilians residing in São Paulo) and soon after, other teams followed.
In 1986, at the Campeonato Paulista playoffs, supporters adopted the pig like their mascot. Although the parakeet is the official mascot, fans will refer to and yell: "PORCO!" (Pig) enthusiastically during matches, as the pig became their preferred mascot.
Palmeiras's anthem was composed in 1949 by conductor Antonio Sergi. Sergi also wrote the lyrics for the anthem, but did that under the pseudonym Gennaro Rodrigues.
Quando surge o alviverde imponente
(When the imposing white-green emerges)
No gramado em que a luta o aguarda
(On the pitch where battle awaits)
Sabe bem o que vem pela frente
(Aware of what lies ahead)
Que a dureza do prélio não tarda
(That the hardness of the game is approaching)
E o Palmeiras no ardor da partida
(And Palmeiras, in the heat of the match)
Transformando a lealdade em padrão
(Making a pattern out of loyalty)
Sabe sempre levar de vencida
(Always knows how to emerge as the winner)
E mostrar que de fato é campeão
(And show that it's indeed the champion)
Defesa que ninguém passa
Linha atacante de raça
(Vigorous attacking line)
Torcida que canta e vibra
(Singing, cheering supporters)
Por nosso alviverde inteiro
(For our white-green whole)
Que sabe ser brasileiro
(That knows how to be Brazilian)
Ostentando a sua fibra
(Boasting its fiber)
- As of January 20, 2014.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
These are Palmeiras's top scorers since its foundation (data as of 12 May 2006):
|3||Ademir da Guia||153||1961–77|
|Head Coach||Oswaldo de Oliveira|
|Assistant Coach||Alberto Valentim|
|Assistant Coach||Sergio Santín|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Fernando Miranda|
|Fitness Coaches||Marco Aurélio, Thiago Santi and Néstor Bonillo|
|Club Doctors||Rubens Sampaio, Vinícius Martins and Otávio Vilhena|
|Physiotherapists||José Rosan Júnior, Mário Galdi Peixoto and João Carlos Ferreira de Sousa|
|Masseurs||Sérgio Luís, Miguel de Oliveira and Luiz Carlos|
- 1977-1992: Adidas
- 1993-1995: Rhummell
- 1996-1999: Reebok
- 1999-2002: Rhummell
- 2006–present: Adidas
- 1987-1988: Agip
- 1989-1992: Coca-Cola
- 1992-2000: Parmalat (In 1998, Palmeiras wore a kit with Santal Active, a product of Parmalat)
- 2001-2007: Pirelli (eventually Palmeiras wore kits with Scorpions ATR, Cinturato P4 and P7)
- 2008: FIAT (eventually Palmeiras wore kits with CASE)
- 2008-2009: Suvinil (on sleeves)
- 2009-2010: Samsung
- 2009-2010: Fast Shop (on sleeves)
- 2010-2012: FIAT
- 2010-2011: Seguros UNIMED (shorts)
- 2011: Banco BMG (on sleeves)
- 2011: TIM (inside the numbers)
- 2012: KIA
- 2013: none
- 2014: none
- 2015-: Crefisa
The club associates congregate in a general assembly every four years to elect the seventy-six members of the Conselho Deliberativo (Deliberating Council) who in their turn chose amongst them a president for a two-year mandate. As of 2006 the president can only be re-elected once.
In its history, the club has won 22 championships of the State of São Paulo and 5 Rio-São Paulo Tournament, but the most important titles have been 8 national league titles ( 4 Campeonato Brasileiros, 2 Torneios Roberto Gomes Pedrosa and 2 Taças Brasil), 3 national cups (2 Brazil Cup and 1 Brazilian Champion's Cup), 1 Libertadores Cup, 1 Mercosur Cup and 1 world tournament (1951 Copa Rio). Palmeiras is recognised as Brazil's most victorious club. In 1999, the Club was claimed by Federação Paulista de Futebol (Football Federation of São Paulo) 'Champion of The 20th Century' in Brazil.
- Winners (1) : 1951
- Winners (1) : 2000
- Campeonato Paulista (22): [1920, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1936, 1940, 1942, 1944, 1947, 1950, 1959, 1963, 1966, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1993, 1994, 1996, 2008
- Campeonato Paulista Extra (2): 1926, 1938
- São Paulo City Cup (4): 1945, 1946, 1950, 1951
- Campeonato Paulista Feminino de Futebol (1): 2001
Palmeiras B Team
For many years, Palmeiras had a "second" team that played in the lower divisions of the Paulista Championship. The team was dissolved at the end of the Paulista 2013.
Palmeiras has a victorious tradition in various sports, such as rink hockey and basketball. Palmeiras has in it history 2 Brazilian Roller Hockey National Championships, being one of the main teams from São Paulo.
Note: Flags indicate national team eligibility at FIBA sanctioned events. Players may hold other non-FIBA nationality not displayed.
- Also known by its nickname Paulistão.
- Also known by its nickname Brasileirão.
- Gílson Kleina é o novo técnico do Palmeiras. Contrato até o fim de 2013
- Love marca no fim e deixa Palmeiras muito perto da Série B
- Downie, Andrew (August 26, 2014). "Palmeiras mark centenary amid relegation fears". theguardian.com. Reuters. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
- . 'Federação Paulista de Futebol, article "Estádio_Palestra_Itália". Accessed on January 3, 2008.
- Almanaque do Futebol Paulista 2000, by José Jorge Farah Neto and Rodolfo Kussarev Jr., published by Editora Panini Brasil and A Bola da Bola, page 414.
- "Palmeiras" (in Portuguese). Pelé.net. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
- "Elenco Futebol Profissional" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Estatuto da Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (club statute), art. 52.
- Estatuto da Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (club statute), art. 83.
- Estatuto da Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (club statute), art. 113.
- Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras official records and meeting minutes
- . Terra, Chapter "Palmeiras Minha Vida", article "Presidentes do Palmeiras". Accessed on December 24, 2007.
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