Society of California Pioneers

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Membership certificate issued to Joshua S. Henshaw, December 15, 1866

Established in 1850, The Society of California Pioneers is dedicated to the study and enjoyment of California art, history, and culture. Founded by individuals arriving in California before 1850 and thriving under the leadership of several generations of their direct descendants, The Society has continuously served its members, the academic community, and the public. As the oldest organization West of The Mississippi, The Society opened the first library in California, as well as a grand hall for meetings, lectures, and social events. Today The Society operates a public museum and a research library, both housed in one of the iconic Montgomery Barracks Buildings on The Presidio of San Francisco’s historic Main Post.

Pioneer Hall features rotating exhibitions of art and artifacts amassed since 1850; free museum education programs for school-aged children, as well as public tours and events are offered. The Alice Phelan Sullivan Research Library, which houses a large portion of The Society’s collections, is open to the public by appointment, allowing researchers and historians access to The Society’s privately held repository of rare primary source materials.

The Society's service to the community is designed to support scholarship and encourage new interpretations that illuminate and honor the diverse experiences of those who came before us.

According to its constitution, The Society's mission is "to cultivate the social virtues of its members, to collect and preserve information connected with the early settlement and conquest of the country, and to perpetuate the memory of those who sagacity, enterprise, and love of independence induced them to settle in the wilderness, and become the germ of a new State."

The Society continues to be a membership organization, and "Membership is open to descendants of pioneers who arrived in California prior to January 1, 1850."[1]

Museum[edit]

Dr. Charles Boarman (1828-1880), son of Rear Admiral Charles Boarman, was a founding member and presided of the first meeting of the Amador County chapter in 1877. He and his family were among the first people to settle in Amador County in 1859, and was its county physician and coroner from 1863 to 1880.

The Society continues to exist and has its headquarters in San Francisco as it always has been. Pioneer Hall at The Presidio, which includes a museum (open to the public Wednesday to Sunday) and a research library (open by appointment only) is on the historic Main Post at 101 Montgomery, Suite 150 - Presidio of San Francisco, 94129.

The Society of California Pioneers’ archives document the founding and early history of California, including The Gold Rush, The Earthquake and Fire of 1906, and other defining events. The collection includes manuscripts and letters, paintings, prints and drawings, photographs, books, maps, newspapers and journals, the business ledgers of mining and transportation companies, as well as historic artifacts and decorative objects. An extensive collection of overland and pioneer diaries includes those of John A. Sutter and a letter by Henry W. Bigler, both primary sources announcing the discovery of gold in California. Works by Carleton Watkins, Eadweard Muybridge, Lawrence & Houseworth, and Turrill & Miller are held in our archive of photographs, panoramas, and daguerreotypes. Particularly notable for its nineteenth-century holdings, the painting collection includes works by Thomas Hill, William Coulter, Jules Tavernier, and Maynard Dixon. Together with The Society’s collection of ephemera and prints, these form a vivid, visual record of life in California over time.

The museum exhibits art and artifacts from the Society's collections on a rotating basis.

Bear Flags[edit]

Several Bear Flags were donated to the Society during the last half of the 19th century, including a flag which almost certainly was the Bear Flag which was lowered at Sonoma on July 9, 1846, when the U.S. Flag was first raised at that location. This same Bear Flag very well may be the original Bear Flag which was made at the beginning of the Bear Flag Revolt of June/July 1846. The donation records of the Society show that two Bear Flags were donated to the Society by California U. S. Senator Weller on September 8, 1855.[2] For many years, the Society would carry the Bear Flag during Admission Day parades and also on Anniversaries of the Bear Flag Revolt. Unfortunately all of the Bear flags held by the Society were destroyed in April 1906 as a result of the earthquake and fires which destroyed the Society's Pioneer Hall. Luckily a few photographs of the flags which had been taken survived so that we know what the flags actually looked like. Also a duplicate of the Bear Flag was made in 1896, the 50th Anniversary of the Bear Flag Revolt, and this flag continues to be displayed at the Sonoma Barracks, in Sonoma, California.

The Early Pioneers (51 members)[edit]

1800-1829[edit]

1830-1839[edit]

1840-1845[edit]

  • Isaac Livick /San Francisco/October 1840
  • Capt. Elliot Libbey /San Rafael/December 1840
  • Theodore Cordua[6] /Sacramento/March 1841
  • John Bidwell /Butte County/November 1841
  • G. C. Cook */San Jose/November 1841
  • Josiah Belden /San Jose/November 1841
  • Francis H. Huber /San Francisco/November 1841
  • Henry L. Ford[7] /Sacramento/September 1842
  • David W. Alexander /Los Angeles/December 1842
  • Henry F. Teschemacher /San Francisco/July 1842
  • Thomas A. Warbass /San Francisco/July 1842
  • R. L. Kilburn /Napa/March 1842
  • John A. Hoar /Monterey/October 1843
  • Jasper O'Farrell /Bodega/November 1843
  • Nathan Coombs /Napa/July 1843
  • Moses Schallenberger /San Jose/March 1844
  • Daniel Murphy /San Jose/December 1844
  • John M. Murphy /San Jose/December 1844
  • Martin Murphy /Santa Clara/December 1844
  • John Sullivan[8] /San Francisco/December 1844
  • Jacob R. Snyder[9] /San Francisco/September 1845
  • William Findlay /San Jose/July 1845
  • Judge William Blackburn[10] /Santa Cruz /September 1845
  • Daniel Leahy /San Francisco/October 1845
  • Francis Hoen[11] /San Francisco/September 1845
  • Henry C. Smith /Alameda/December 1845
  • William B. Bassham /San Jose/October 1845
  • Captain William F. Swasey[12] /San Francisco/September 1845

The Mexican-American War Years (64 members)[edit]

1846[edit]

1847[edit]

  • J. Caldwell Low /San Francisco/March 1847
  • Edward Gilbert */San Francisco/March 1847
  • J. C. L. Wadsworth /San Francisco/April 1847
  • L. W. Sloat /San Francisco/August 1847
  • A. G. Abell /San Francisco/August 1847
  • L. B. Clements /Santa Cruz/June 1847
  • J. Mead Huxley /San Francisco/March 1847
  • J. L. Folsom, U.S. A./San Francisco/March 1847
  • G. Frank Lemon /San Francisco/March 1847
  • H. W. Halleck /San Francisco/Jan. 1847
  • H. M. Naglee /San Francisco March 1847
  • R. J. Tobin /San Francisco/September 1847
  • R. A. Parker /Crescent City/March 1847
  • H. A. Schoolcraft */Sacramento/April 1847
  • Jas. L. Ord /Monterey/Jan. 1847
  • John B. Frisbie /San Francisco/March 1847
  • Thos. J. Roach */Trinidad/April 1847
  • S. W. Haight /San Francisco/March 1847
  • Richard H. Sinton /San Francisco/November 1847
  • Alfred J. Ellis /San Francisco/April 1847
  • M. L. Callender /San Francisco/April 1847
  • Alfred A. Green /San Francisco/April 1847
  • Geo. Stoneman, U.S.A./San Francisco/Jan. 1847
  • Henry D. Cook /San Francisco/July 1847
  • John S. Beener /San Francisco/September 1847
  • W. T. Sherman, U.S.A./San Francisco/Jan. 1847
  • H. W. Theall /Sonora/March 1847
  • Charles Stevens /San Francisco/April 1847
  • Charles L. Ross /San Francisco/April 1847
  • Horace Hawes /San Francisco/April 1847
  • Hiram Grimes /San Francisco/February 1847
  • James Adams /San Francisco/March 1847
  • John Q. Adams /San Francisco/March 1847
  • William Joy /San Francisco/April 1847

1848[edit]

  • William M. Stewart /San Francisco/October 1848
  • Bethuel Phelps /San Francisco/August 1848
  • Charles B. Johnson /Los Angeles/April 1848
  • Alfred DeWitt /San Francisco/September 1848
  • I. C. Woods /San Francisco/November/1848
  • Herman Wohler /San Francisco/February 1848
  • James King of William /San Francisco/November 1848
  • Chas. A. Angelo /San Francisco/December 1848
  • Edward Martin /San Francisco/November 1848
  • George W. Ryder /San Francisco/October 1848
  • J. Wemys Austin /San Francisco/August 1848
  • P. B. Cornwall /Sacramento/July 1848

The Gold Rush (268 members)[edit]

1849 Jan-Mar (18)[edit]

  • John Erskine Jr. /San Francisco/Jan. 1849
  • E. V. Joice /San Francisco/Jan. 1849
  • Aaron Pollard /San Francisco/Jan. 1849
  • David T. Bagley /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Joseph G. Cadiz /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Elisha Oscar Crosby/San Francisco/February 1849
  • George R. Davidson /San Francisco/February 1849
  • James Grant /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Charles Gulliver /San Francisco/February 1849
  • John McDougal /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Gabriel B. Post /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Levi Stowell /San Francisco/February 1849
  • E. L. Sullivan /San Francisco/February 1849
  • Jesse Sutton /San Francisco/February 1849
  • William Van Voorhies /San Francisco/February 1849
  • William H. Grattan /San Francisco/March 1849
  • W. A. Mix /Red Bluffs/March 1849
  • Richard Ross /San Francisco/March 1849

1849 Apr-May (23)[edit]

  • John Benson /San Francisco/April 1849
  • Alvin A. Coffey /Sacramento Valley/May 1849
  • Edward Conner /San Francisco/April 1849
  • R. P. Hammond /San Francisco's/April 1849
  • Kelsey Hazen /San Francisco/April 1849
  • Frank Johnson /Sacramento/April 1849
  • John T. Little /San Francisco/April 1849
  • A. J. Morrell /San Francisco/April 1849
  • Jam L. Newell /San Francisco's/April 1849
  • R. Erskine Newland /San Francisco/April 1849
  • E. F. Northam /San Francisco/April 1849
  • A. W. Peabody /San Francisco's/April 1849
  • A. C. Peachy /San Francisco/April 1849
  • A. G. Randall /San Francisco/April 1849
  • J. Prall Stephens /San Francisco/April 1849
  • O. P. Sutton /San Francisco/April 1849
  • B. F. Voorheos /San Francisco/April 1849
  • Albert Williams /San Francisco/April 1849
  • Charles Hosmer /San Francisco/May 1849
  • W. Cornell Jewett /San Francisco/May 1849
  • Frank Soule /San Francisco/May 1849
  • William Neely Thomson /San Francisco/May 1849
  • Frank Turk /San Francisco/May 1849
  • James Vantine /San Francisco/May 1849

1849 June (43)[edit]

  • William Baker Jr. /San Francisco/June 1849
  • H. G. Blankman /Monterey/June 1849
  • F. A. Bonnard /San Francisco/June 1849
  • R. E. Brewster /San Francisco/June 1849
  • P. A. Brinsmade /San Francisco's/June 1849
  • David C. Broderick /San Francisco/June 1849
  • William M. Burgoyne /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John A. Clark /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John Q. Cole /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Robert G. Crozier /San Francisco/June 1849
  • E. Morris Earl /San Francisco/June 1849
  • William M. Eddy */San Francisco/June 1849
  • Chas. S. Eigenbrodt /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Samuel C. Eveleth /San Francisco/June 1849
  • William D. Fair /San Francisco/June 1849
  • E. Gallagher /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Chas. H. Gilman /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Geo. W. Green /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John S. Hagar /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Stephen R. Harris /San Francisco's/June 1849
  • B. Frank Hillard /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Geo. A. Hudson /San Francisco's/June 1849
  • George Kerr */Stockton/June 1849
  • Asa T. Lawton /San Francisco/June 1849
  • J. E. Lawrence /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Chas. W. Lawton /San Francisco/June 1849
  • E. W. Leonard /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Hiram Leonard, U.S.A./San Francisco's/June 1849
  • Louis R. Lull /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John A. McGlynn /San Francisco/June 1849
  • William McKibben /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Peter A. Morse /San Francisco's/June 1849
  • O. C. Osborne /San Francisco/June 1849
  • James Pearson /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John V. Plume /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Julius K. Rose /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John Satterlee /San Francisco/June 1849
  • William J. Shaw /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Hervey Sparks /San Francisco/June 1849
  • T. G. Spear /San Francisco/June 1849
  • R. Julius Stevens /San Francisco June 1849
  • William H. Tiffany /San Francisco/June 1849
  • John Vandewater /San Francisco/June 1849
  • Julius Wetzler /Sacramento/June 1849

1849 July (31)[edit]

  • G. W. Bryant /San Francisco's/July 1849
  • Albert H. Clark /Los Angeles/July 1849
  • John M. Coughlin /San Francisco/July 1849
  • John C. Derby /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Squire P. Dewey /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Jas. R. Duff /San Francisco/July 1849
  • David Dwyer /San Francisco/July 1849
  • E. A. Edgerton /San Francisco/July 1849
  • John M. Farwell /San Francisco/July 1849
  • W. B. Farwell /San Francisco/July 1849
  • James Fitton /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Chas. H. Gough /San Francisco/July 1849
  • James G. Gould /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Isaac M. Hall /San Francisco/July 1849
  • E. D. Hammond /San Francisco's/July/1849
  • William C. Hoff /San Francisco's/July 1849
  • Caleb Hyatt /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Richard M. Jessup /San Francisco/July 1849
  • David Jobson /San Francisco/July 1849
  • William E. Keyes /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Seth R. Kneeland /San Francisco/July 1849
  • A. Larrain /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Henry Meiggs /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Daniel Norcross /San Francisco/July 1849
  • James G. Pearson /San Francisco/July 1849
  • C. T. Ryland /San Jose/July 1849
  • Jacob Shew /San Francisco/July 1849
  • John Short /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Jas. B. Townsend /San Francisco/July 1849
  • William W. Warner /San Francisco/July 1849
  • Joseph R. West /San Francisco/July 1849

1849 August (52)[edit]

  • F. B. Austin /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Abram Bartol /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Calhoun Benham /San Francisco/August 1849
  • J. D. Bluxome /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Theodore Boschulte /San Francisco/August 1849
  • C. J. Brenham /San Francisco/August 1849
  • De Witt C. Brown /San Francisco/August 1849
  • J. J. A. Bruce /San Francisco/August 1849
  • J. J. Bryant /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Wake Bryarly /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Alexander Campbell /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Chas. D. Carter /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William H. Chamberlain, Miss./San Jose/August 1849
  • Richard Cheenery /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Reuben Clark /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Smyth Clark /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William Clark /San Francisco/August 1849
  • B. B. Coit /San Francisco/August 1849
  • John W. Conner /San Francisco/August 1849
  • C. H. Crane /San Francisco/August 1849
  • E. W. Crowell /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William H. Crowell /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Arthur M. Ebbetts /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Horatio S. Gates /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William L. Higgins /San Francisco/August 1849
  • James Holohan /San Francisco/August 1849
  • A. J. Hooper /San Francisco/August 1849
  • E. J. C. Kewen /San Francisco/August 1849
  • C. W. Lander /San Francisco/August 1849
  • F. W. Macondray /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William Newell /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William B. Olds /San Francisco/August 1849
  • John J. Pensam /San Francisco/August 1849
  • D. W. Perlay /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Joseph W. Philips /San Francisco/August 1849
  • L. Pickering /San Francisco/August 1849
  • J. D. Pierson /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Rudolf Korwin Piotrowski /San Francisco/August 1849
  • D. T. Raymond /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Philip A. Roach /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Daniel S. Roberts /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Levi Hukill Sherman /San Francisco/August 1849
  • William Sherman /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Horatio N. Squire /San Francisco/August 1849
  • David B. Stover /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Frank Tilford /San Francisco/August 1849
  • John W. Tucker /San Francisco/August 1849
  • David S. Turner /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Henry Vandervier /San Francisco/August 1849
  • Chas. J. Warner /San Francisco's/August 1849
  • William R. Wheaton /San Francisco/August 1849
  • M. S. Whiting /San Francisco/August 1849

1849 September (40)[edit]

  • John P. Buckley /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William E. Bushnell /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Jas. O. Callaghan /San Francisco/September 1849
  • D. W. Connelly /San Francisco/September 1849
  • J. N. Cordoza /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Joseph Daniels /San Francisco/September 1849
  • R. K. Dodge /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William L. Duncan /San Francisco/September 1849
  • F. C. Ewer /San Francisco/September 1849
  • G. K. Fitch /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Richard V. Groat /San Francisco/September 1849
  • C. W. Gunnell /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Chas. F. Hamilton /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Cullen A. Johnson /San Francisco/September 1849
  • W. F. Kelsey /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Thos. E. Lindenberger /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Atkins Massey /San Francisco/September 1849
  • John Middleton /San Francisco/September 1849
  • H. C. Murray /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Geo. A. Parker /Sacramento/September 1849
  • A. B. Perkins /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William L. Ryckman /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Abia A. Sclover /San Francisco/September 1849
  • S. Asbury Shephard /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Chas. S. Simpson /San Francisco/September 1849
  • George M. Smith /San Francisco/September 1849
  • John H. Spooner /San Francisco/September 1849
  • James B. Starr /Sacramento/September 1849
  • John H. Still /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William Taylor /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Isaac N. Thorne /San Francisco/September 1849
  • J. W. Tice /San Francisco/September 1849
  • James Tobin /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Ferdinand Vassault /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William V. Wells /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Chas. H. West /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Thos. J. White /San Francisco/September 1849
  • William G. Wood /San Francisco/September 1849
  • A. S. Wright /San Francisco/September 1849
  • Rector Elisha Cole /San Francisco/October 1849
  • John Judson Ames[13] /San Diego/October 1849
  • Joseph Fairfield Atwill[14] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Judge H. S. Brown /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Selim Franklin /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Sterling A. Hopkins[15] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • E. F. Hussey /San Francisco/October 1849
  • H. P. Jones /San Francisco/October 1849
  • John Horace Kent[16] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • E. McGowan /San Francisco/October 1849
  • S. H. Meeker /Sacramento/October 1849
  • Charles Minturn[17] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Elisha Nichols /San Francisco/October 1849
  • C. T. Parker /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Theodore Payne /San Francisco/October 1849
  • George S. Porter /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Geo. H. Preston /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Charles C. Roe /San Francisco's/October 1849
  • Gerritt W. Ryckman[18] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • George Simpton[19] /San Francisco/October 1849
  • James W. Stillman /San Francisco/October 1849
  • George F. Sweeney /San Francisco/October 1849
  • Philo White /San Francisco/October 1849
  • J. W. Young /San Francisco/October 1849

1849 Nov/Dec (33)[edit]

  • Washington Bartlett /San Francisco's/November 1849
  • T. K. Battelle /San Francisco's/November 1849
  • Charles R. Bond /San Francisco/November 1849
  • William H. J. Brooks /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Chas. E. Buckingham /San Francisco/November 1849
  • G. W. Coffee /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Joseph Galloway /San Francisco/November 1849
  • John H. Gibon /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Henry M. Gray /San Francisco/November 1849
  • A. M. Heslep /San Francisco/November 1849
  • John McCrackan /San Francisco/November 1849
  • F. McGilvery /San Francisco/November 1849
  • A. B. Paul /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Lewis Peck /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Joseph Shannon /San Francisco/November 1849
  • J. E. Wainwright /San Francisco/November 1849
  • Henry A. Breed /San Francisco/December 1849
  • James Dows /San Francisco/December 1849
  • John O. Earl /San Francisco/December 1849
  • James Evrard /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Wilson Flint /San Francisco/December 1849
  • E. J. Folsom /San Francisco/December 1849
  • David Gillespie /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Henry M. Hale /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Thomas D. Johns /San Francisco/December 1849
  • John A. Monroe /San Francisco/December 1849
  • John Nugent /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Samuel Purdy /San Francisco's/December 1849
  • S. Rosenthal /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Daniel L. Ross /San Francisco/December 1849
  • P. W. Shepheard /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Henry J. Wells /San Francisco/December 1849
  • Gregory Yale /San Francisco/December 1849

1849 Additional (unspecified month of arrival) (8)[edit]

  • J. M. Tewksbury /San Francisco/1849
  • F. H. West /San Francisco/1849
  • W. J. Whitney /San Francisco/1849
  • G. T. Upham /San Francisco/1849
  • L. A. Birdsall /San Francisco/1849
  • G. Burdell /San Francisco/1849
  • W. Hoskins /San Francisco/1849
  • L. D. Jones /San Francisco/1849

Those marked thus * are deceased by 1851

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Society of California Pioneers". Californiapioneers.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  2. ^ "1848-1855 Naval Correspondence re: Montgomery Bear Flag". Bearflagmuseum.org. 2007-09-17. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ http://www.familyhistory.com/db.asp?dbid=3800
  5. ^ a b "San Francisco History - The Beginnings of San Francisco, Chapter XV". Sfgenealogy.com. 1909-09-26. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  6. ^ "Calarchives4u.com". Calarchives4u.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  7. ^ "Bibliography". Bearflagmuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  8. ^ "Finding Aid to the Noël Sullivan papers, [ca. 1911-1956], [ca. 1911-1956]". Content.cdlib.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  9. ^ "California – The Great Seal Of The State". Oldandsold.com. 1906-01-23. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  10. ^ "Family Grove » William Blackburn". Familygrove.webjaw.com. 2006-05-06. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  11. ^ "History of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1851: a study of ... - Mary Floyd Williams - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  12. ^ "DSRB Auction 12, Lot 72". Sloanrarebooks.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  13. ^ "John Judson Ames (1821 - 1861) | San Diego History Center". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  14. ^ "Calarchives4u.com". Calarchives4u.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  15. ^ [2][dead link]
  16. ^ [3][dead link]
  17. ^ "Healdsburg's History". Ourhealdsburg.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  18. ^ "Popular Tribunals - Hubert Howe Bancroft - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  19. ^ "The Bay of San Francisco: The Metropolis of the Pacific Coast and Its ... - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 

External links[edit]