Society of Lithographic Artists, Designers and Engravers
The Society of Lithographic Artists, Designers and Engravers (SLADE) was a British trade union which was formed in 1885 as the National Society of Lithographic Artists, Designers and Writers, Copperplate and Wood Engravers and, after a number of changes of name, amalgamated with the National Graphical Association (NGA) in 1982 to form the National Graphical Association (1982).
There was controversy over SLADE's recruitment tactics, including the introduction of closed shops. On 12 March 1978 the Sunday Times stated "Nearly 8000 workers have been forced mostly against their will, to join a union. Workers usually join unions to protect themselves. These workers wanted protection, but not against their bosses. They wanted protection against the very union they were being forced to join. It threatened them with the blacking of their work, the bankruptcy of their firm and the loss of their livelihoods."  It has been written that "the vast majority [of those 8000] felt that SLADE was ignorant of their industry, had rules and working practices inappropriate to them and considered the 'join or else your company will be put out of business' method of recruitment scandalous."
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