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Socionics, in psychology and sociology, is a theory of information processing and personality type, distinguished by its information model of the psyche (called "Model A") and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. Socionics is a modification of Jung's personality type theory that uses eight psychic functions, in contrast to Jung's model, which used only four. These functions process information at varying levels of competency and interact with the corresponding function in other individuals, giving rise to predictable reactions and impressions—a theory of intertype relations.
Socionics was developed in the 1970s and '80s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Dr. Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, an economist, sociologist, psychologist and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science. The name "socionics" is derived from the word "society", because Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.
The central idea of socionics is that information is intuitively divisible into eight categories, called information aspects or information elements, which a person's psyche processes using eight psychological functions. Each sociotype has a different correspondence between functions and information elements, which results in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information. This in turn results in distinct thinking patterns, values, and responses to arguments, all of which are encompassed within socionic type. Socionics' theory of intertype relations is based on the interaction of these functions between types.
The basic structure of socionics was established in the 1960s and 1970s by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, along with a group of enthusiasts who met in Vilnius, Lithuania. What resulted from their discussions and Augustinavičiūtė's personal investigations was an information model of the psyche and of interpersonal interaction based on Jung's typology but with 8 psychic functions rather than four. Augustinavičiūtė's first works on socionics were published between 1978 and 1980.
Currently, socionic methods are widely used in academic and applied research. According to the catalog DisserCat from 1996 to 2011 in Russia, Ukraine and other countries were defended more than 800 doctoral theses, using methods and analytic tools of Socionics in management, education, psychology, anthropology, medicine, philosophy, philology, sports, and law.
There are published 4 scientific peer-reviewed refereed journals on the practical application of methods of Socionics in management, consulting, psychology, pedagogy, education, psychotherapy, and humanities.
There are several socionics organizations. The International Institute of Socionics (IIS) was established in 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine and for years has held the most prominent annual international socionics conference. The institute pursues the continued development of socionics theory, renders commercial consulting services, and since 1994 has released a bi-monthly journal Socionics, mentology and personality psychology (six issues a year). Topics in the journal usually range anywhere from studies and applications of the primary principles of socionics to speculative extensions of the theory. The director and founder of the institute is Dr. Aleksandr Bukalov. In 2006 the institute established an International Academic Board to issue bachelors, masters, and PhD degrees in socionics to socionists who had demonstrated competency in socionics and published significant work in the field.
The Scientific Research Socionics Institute is located in Moscow, Russia and is led by Tatyana Prokofieva. The institute primarily studies socionics, personality and relationships within a socionics context, and develops methods of individual and business consulting. Furthermore, the institute provides socionics instruction allowing participants to receive a "bachelors" or "masters" degree in socionics according to the criteria of the International Institute of Socionics.
The Applied Socionics School founded in 2003 is located in Moscow, Russia, with local branches in several cities (Murmansk, Petrozavodsk, Rostov-na-Donu, and Krasnodar), and is led by Elena Udalova. The School developed educational courses about basic knowledge of socionics, the intertype relations, and sociotype distortions, as well as local trainings devoted to the introverted ethics and introverted intuition. The local trainings are conducted for persons of sociotypes having their strengths in respective functions (Fi or Ni, respectively).
The School of System Socionics  was founded by Vladimir Davidovich Ermak in November 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine. In 2005 official School of System Socionics web site was founded by I.M. Eglit. Since then it has become creative laboratory of practical socionics and platform for training socionists - experts in TIM identification. The School has developed Methodology of remote TIM Identification, introduced a school-standard identification protocol and computer-aided type identification techniques.
In 1995, non-governmental organization Russian Academy of Natural Sciences recognized socionics as a discovery, and its creator - Dr. Aušra Augustinavičiūtė - was awarded a diploma and a Peter Kapitza medal.
Socionics as an academic discipline 
Through the work of the International Institute of Socionics and other schools of Socionics, the issue 4 peer-reviewed journals and the annual International conferences on socionics, Socionics is taught in more than 150 universities  in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, as well as in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Romania, either as a separate course, or, in view of the applicability of the various methods of Socionics Humanities, as part of educational courses on Sociology, Pedagogy, Social Psychology, Management and Psychology of Management, human resource management, Conflictology, social services and Tourism, Computer Science and Programming, Philosophy, Neurology, Journalism, Library Science, Social Work, Didactics and others, including Engineering disciplines.
The universities in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania  published a number of books and monographs on Socionics, or on psychology, pedagogy and management, which socionics and its methods are devoted to specific topics.
There are new areas of research, such as Educational Socionics, Sociological Socionics, Aviation Socionics, Library Socionics, Technical Socionics, Linguistic Socionics, Penitentiary Socionics, and Socionics in other subject areas.
Most actively socionics is used in education process, not only as a tool for teachers to manage the learning process, but also as a basis for the development and improvement of education and training. A teacher holding socionic knowledge and technologies can consciously collaborate with others and improve professional efficiency. Targeted use of intertype relations helps intensify the didactic process, increase the motivation of students. Socionics is also used to assess the individual psychological and personal qualities to forecast the success of employee career.
Socionics is a tool for the study of personality and creativity of the writer, the typology of the characters in his works. The method of linguistic-socionic modeling proposed by L.M. Komissarova, used for analysis of individual lexicon of language personality. A translation of socionic characteristics in verbal ones is called the "method of linguistic-socionic modeling" and widely used.
Socionic methods have been proposed for the modeling of information processes in the "human-machine" systems, and practically used to model systems "aircraft operator" in pilots' training, and other similar areas.
Due to the variety of applications of Socionics, its concepts and information models, in the 90 years of the 20th century, it was proposed to distinguish Socionics of personality, or differential socionics, and generalized, more abstract integral Socionics. A number of experts believe that the concept of information metabolism, cybernetic modeling and general systems theory extends beyond of psychology and sociology, and consider the relationship of technical information devices, and the types of information human interactions as operator with various technical and electronic management systems of major industries, including chemical, nuclear power stations, complex computer complexes with adaptive tunable to a specific operator interfaces.
Propagation of socionics 
In Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Georgia, Bulgaria, and Central Asia, socionics has grown significantly in popularity. A couple of journals exist, as well as a number of organizations which periodically hold conferences in Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities.
It was first introduced in English in the mid-1990s when Sergei Ganin created Socionics.com. Since 1997, there is a resource of the International Institute of Socionics, Socionic.info. Dmitri Lytov, creator of the multi-language socionics resource, Socioniko.net, presented a more classical view of socionics and participated in online discussions in English. In 2006, Rick DeLong published hand translations of excerpts of several works by Augustinavičiūtė at Socionics.us, which clarified her views.
There are a number of academic publications on Socionics in English in peer-reviewed journals. Since 2000 socionics as a scientific discipline and a field of research has been recognized and widespread in many countries. As of the 2012 academic research and applied work in the field of socionics held in Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Bulgaria, Great Britain, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Estonia, Austria, Germany, and others, as well as in the U.S.
Practical application of socionics in management and other fields 
Socionists have devised humanitarian, political, and information technologies that have been applied to various fields of human activity. Socionic techniques have been applied at more than 120 enterprises from Russia, Ukraine, Germany and the Baltics by members of the International Institute of Socionics.
Jung's psychological types 
|Dominant||Extraverted intuition||Introverted feeling|
|Auxiliary||Introverted thinking||Extraverted sensation|
|Tertiary||Extroverted feeling||Introverted intuition|
|Inferior||Introverted sensation||Extraverted thinking|
- Sensation - all perceptions by means of the sense organs
- Intuition - perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
- Thinking (in socionics, logic) - interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect
- Feeling (in socionics, ethics) - interpretation of information based on its ethical aspects
By Jung's rules 16 psychological types exist. But in his book "Psychological Types" he described in detail only 8 types, distinguished by the eight possible dominant functions.
Information elements 
In socionics, Jung's functions are always introverted or extroverted, and are referred to as functions of information metabolism. These functions are said to process information aspects. To understand what an information aspect is, it is necessary to understand information metabolism as Augustinavičiūtė understood it.
Augustinavičiūtė states that the perception of the world through the human mind uses eight elements of information metabolism (mental functions), each of which reflects one particular aspect of objective reality. In her works she describes aspects of the world based on physical quantities such as potential and kinetic energy, space, time, and their properties.
Oftentimes other socionists have equated the information elements with their definition according to fundamental physical concepts as well (Matter-Time-Energy-Space) (N. Medvedev, V. Ermak ). Matter compared to Thinking, Energy to Feeling, Space to Sensing, Time to Intuition. Given the division of aspects of the absolute between Extroverted ("black") and Introverted ("white"), being four times two, their number is eight.
The 8 socionics symbols ( ) were introduced by Augustinavičiūtė while working with Jung's typology  and remain the dominant method of denoting the functions and the corresponding information aspects that they process. Other notation systems also enjoy some use, such as Victor Gulenko's 8 Latin letters (P, E, F, I, L, R, S, and T, correspondingly). Among western enthusiasts, Myers-Briggs notation (Te, Fe, Se, Ne, Ti, Fi, Si, and Ni, correspondingly) is popular.
The 16 types 
Socionics divides people into 16 different types, called sociotypes. They are most commonly referred to by their two strongest functions, which in socionics are called the leading function (Jung's dominant) and the creative function (Jung's auxiliary). The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means it must be either extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert (SLI) to refer to the types. In SLI the leading function is introverted sensing and the creative function is extraverted logic. She also introduced the practice of referring to types by the name of a famous person of the type (although types of these persons are not universally agreed upon, especially about "Napoleon"). For example, she called the SLI Gabin and the SEI Dumas. Also sometimes names such as Craftsman or Mediator are used to express the social role of the type—a convention introduced by socionist Viktor Gulenko in 1995. Given the formal similarities present between Socionics and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) abbreviations frequently used in English, some prefer to distinguish socionic type names from Myers-Briggs' names by writing the last letter (J or P) in lower case (for example, ENTp, ESFj) -- a practice introduced by Sergei Ganin. This is because the relationship between socionics and Myers-Briggs and Keirseyan types is controversial and most socionists deny any strict relationship between the two, so the difference in terminology helps to differentiate the two.
In dividing the socion according to the four Jungian dichotomies, from this is formed 16 socionic types. The following tables provide a list of types with the names most commonly used in socionics:
|First two functions||Formal name||Socionics 4-letter code||MBTI 4-letter code||Social role||Type alias|
|Logical Sensory Extrovert (LSE)||ESTj||ESTJ||Administrator / Director||Stierlitz|
|Logical Intuitive Extrovert (LIE)||ENTj||ENTJ||Enterpriser / Pioneer||Jack London|
|Ethical Sensory Extrovert (ESE)||ESFj||ESFJ||Bonvivant / Enthusiast||Hugo|
|Ethical Intuitive Extrovert (EIE)||ENFj||ENFJ||Mentor / Actor||Hamlet|
|Sensory Logical Extrovert (SLE)||ESTp||ESTP||Legionnaire / Conqueror||Zhukov|
|Sensory Ethical Extrovert (SEE)||ESFp||ESFP||Politician / Ambassador||Napoleon (or Caesar)|
|Intuitive Logical Extrovert (ILE)||ENTp||ENTP||Seeker / Inventor||Don Quixote|
|Intuitive Ethical Extrovert (IEE)||ENFp||ENFP||Psychologist / Reporter||Huxley|
|Logical Sensory Introvert (LSI)||ISTj||ISTP||Inspector / Pragmatist||Maxim Gorky|
|Logical Intuitive Introvert (LII)||INTj||INTP||Analyst / Mastermind||Robespierre (or Descartes)|
|Ethical Sensory Introvert (ESI)||ISFj||ISFP||Guardian / Conservator||Dreiser|
|Ethical Intuitive Introvert (EII)||INFj||INFP||Humanist / Empath||Dostoyevsky|
|Sensory Logical Introvert (SLI)||ISTp||ISTJ||Craftsman / Artisan||Gabin|
|Sensory Ethical Introvert (SEI)||ISFp||ISFJ||Mediator / Peacemaker||Dumas|
|Intuitive Logical Introvert (ILI)||INTp||INTJ||Critic / Observer||Balzac|
|Intuitive Ethical Introvert (IEI)||INFp||INFJ||Lyricist / Romantic||Yesenin|
Among socionists, the prevailing view is that sociotypes are inborn and genetically determined, although the content of different functions and dimensions may vary. Some socionists believe that sociotypes may temporarily change while in altered states of consciousness or under great stress.
Vladimir Ermak first introduced two important concepts of modern socionics further confirmed by Elena Udalova research. The first one is the growth dynamics which means that every horizontal block of two functions (see below) is filling in the certain age, from bottom to top, with the roughly 7 years interval, so that the lowest block is done before 7, the next is complete before 14, the weak part of the mental track is done before 21, and the top block finally leads after that. Due to this process, a child, or a teenager, may demonstrate faces of other sociotypes according to the active horizontal block. Besides, being introduced to the unknown people, or in stressful situations, people again may demonstrate adaptive or protective behaviour directed by the appropriate blocks (see below).
The second concept is so called functional dimensions. It was introduced by Aleksandr Bukalov. He define the first dimension as the personal experience (Ex), the second dimension as social norms (No), the third dimension as the current situation (Si), and the fourth dimension as the globality, or time perspective (Ti). This concept is useful because it best illustrates the difference in cognitive power (imagine measuring capability of 2D vs 3D measuring tool) and roughly describes abilities of each function to process and generate information. Still, definitions of dimensions require further research and clarification. For example, the vulnerable function tends to lose knowledge which haven't been used.
|Relation||Base 16||Base 10||Base 2||Type|
Since Socionics is mathematically Base-16 and also a psychology of personality in the same way as the typology of Carl Jung and Myers-Briggs, it shares a similar degree of mathematical consistency, while enduring the same serious shortcomings in the experimental justification of these theories.
Taking this, Socionics also differs from other typologies in that it also includes a complementary Base-16 relationship set, with the intent of penning to paper the key social dynamic traits between grouped combinations of socionic types. Therefore, socionics could be considered to be within the realm of the science of social dynamics, intended to describe social behavior according to mathematical applications of Base-16, group theory, set logic and reduction of the Gulenko-Jungian notation for socionics types to hexadecimal and Base-2 bitwise operation. While this mathematical approach is strictly theoretical and has been criticized for lack of empirical testing, systems theory has been the tool of socionics theorist, such as Gregory Reinin to derive theorical dichotomies within socionics theory. In 1985 Aušra Augustinavičiūtė acknowledged the mathematical theories of Reinin and wrote a book titled "The Theory of Reinin's Traits" to describe the mathematical processes of socionics theory. Mathematical methods have been a standard part of socionics theory since this time.
Studies of Elena Udalova show that at least three of Reinin's Traits are distinguishable and can be used for detection of a sociotype. Those include: statics/dynamics (having appropriate functions in their mental track), questims/declatims (tending to rise questions or declare opinions), and aristocrats/democrats (understanding inequality or equality of people). Not all names of Reinin's Traits reflect their actual meaning very well, but they were defined historically and now seem to be fixed.
The methodology of deriving socionic relationships from two socionic types is similar to the enumeration of 16 possible boolean algebraic functions from two binary output and input variable types, with truth tables and during construction of logic gates in electronics.
Model A 
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed a model of personality called Model A, which includes eight functional positions. Every human has every function, and can perceive and process any available information aspect by them; however, depending on where the metabolizing function for an aspect is located in a type's functional ordering, the actual quality of the produced information and the means of its use may vary. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions in Model A (numbers of functions are in Viktor Gulenko's notation). The numbering of the functions is semi-arbitrary, and is intended to represent on the one hand the smooth flow of information from function 1 to 4 (the mental track), and the mirroring of that flow by the other four. (the so-called "vital" track) For example, the ILE type has the following version of Model A:
Nature of functional positions 
- Function 1 - leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged. According to Bukalov, this is 4D function (Ex, No, Si, Ti).
- Function 2 - creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its essence. One is generally less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened, or when dealing with new and complex tasks and data. According to Bukalov, this function is 3D (Ex, No, Si), or time invariant, because it produces something new which may never exist before.
- Function 3 - role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. Moreover, one generally uses it in situations of social adaptation (e.g. introducing themselves to an unknown person). However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from someone else's strong function to overcome the problems associated with the role function. According to Bukalov, this function is 2D (Ex, No), or situation invariant, because it cannot adapt to the unusual situation beyond social norms.
- Function 4 - the vulnerable function, or place of least resistance, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from someone else's strong function (preferably the Function 8) to overcome the problems associated with this function. According to Bukalov, this function is single dimensional, i.e. only personal experience is collected here, and it cannot be adapted even to the social norms.
- Function 5 - suggestive function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents. When left to ones own devices, the suggestive function goes unnoticed. According to Bukalov, this function is single dimensional, too, and one must be careful not to become subject of manipulation because of misuse of this function. Discussing aspects of this function makes person happy and trustful. (That's why it's called suggestive.)
- Function 6 - mobilizing function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's actions. Individuals requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it. Often an individual is only aware that they are totally unaware of how to use this function. At the same time, it's 2D function, so it's capable of collecting a number of easy receipts for daily needs. Being successful in aspects of this function makes one happy and motivated. (That's why it's called mobilizing.)
- Function 7 - observant, or ignoring, or restricting function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong (3D according to Bukalov) but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Individuals will disregard this function when an argument calls for restraint or when it will be difficult to indulge in its essence. At the same time one uses this function to restrict somebody's intervention to their privacy or territory, or other unsolicited interaction.
- Function 8 - demonstrative or background function. This function is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not consciously aware of its existence or utilization. It is as strong as the leading function (4D according to Bukalov) and it tends to act silently to protect the weakest point of the dual person (see below). It can sound in situations of extreme irritation when the restricting function fails to break the unsolicited influence.
Note that Model A provides the justification for the type names. The socionic name is leading-creative-extra/introversion. For example the ILE is intuitive leading with a logical creative function and is extroverted. The ESI has leading ethics with secondary sensing and is introverted.
Blocks of the psyche 
According to Augustinavičiūtė, the functions are paired in four blocks: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block contains the leading (1) and creative (2) functions, the super-ego block contains the role (3) and vulnerable (4) functions, the super-id block contains the suggestive (5) and mobilizing (6) functions, while the id block contains the observant (7) and demonstrative (8) functions.
The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious (or "mental") functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious (or "vital"). The functions residing within the ego and id blocks are strong functions which are used naturally and well, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak functions and are used with difficulty. (In addition, using super-ego functions is stressful.)
The 16 types in Model A 
Intertype relations 
Socionics postulates that the way information is communicated between different types results in different interaction styles, called intertype relations. Each intertype relation has its bad and good qualities, though duality is generally considered to be the most psychologically comfortable as a long-term relationship. In total there are 16 relationship roles for each type (14 when not counting the split roles in the supervision and benefit relationship). All relations beside Request and Supervision are symmetric. Request and Supervision relations are asymmetric and have 2 roles: Request - Requester and Request recipient, Supervision - Supervisor and Supervisee. Each cell in the table shows who the type in the left column is to the type in the top row.
Key: Du - Duality; Ac - Activation; Sd - Semi-duality; Mg - Mirage; Mr - Mirror; Id - Identity; Cp - Cooperation; Cg - Congenerity; QI - Quasi-Identity; Ex - Extinguishment; Se - Super-ego; Cf - Conflict; Rq+ - Requester; Rq- - Request recipient; Sv+ - Supervisor; Sv- - Supervisee
Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support, and are generally viewed as optimal for friendship, intimacy, and marriage (though sociotype is not the only factor influencing this). The eight dual pairs are as follows:
In dual relations, the leading function of one partner is the suggestive function of the other, and the creative function of one partner is the mobilizing function of the other. Thus, the ego functions (the strongest and most socialized) of each correspond to the super-id functions of the other (the area where the person needs and expects assistance). Likewise, the super-ego block of one corresponds to the id of the other. In this relation, just 1 of 4 Jungian dichotomies is shared – rationality/irrationality. Duality interaction is generally rewarding and satisfying for both parties, providing inspiration and support. Duality is a central theme of the philosophy of socionics study: Augusta often stated her position that a person who is estranged from contact with a dual partner must cope by unnaturally distorting their personality, a phenomenon called "type masking". Relationships with conflictor types are cited as particularly troublesome: it is not uncommon for a person in a close relationship with their conflictor to develop an acute neurotic condition.
Activation relations occur between two members of the same quadra who share either introversion or extraversion. This relations can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, these relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others mobilizing function. Activation relationships are often romantic if both partners find each other attractive. These relationships are often very easy to start, as both partners share either extraversion or introversion. Introvert activation relationships appear reserved, while extravert activation relationships appear hectic.
Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who lead (by leading function) each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's creative functions (to assist their mobilizing functions). As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).
Relationships of semi-duality can become very close for moderate periods of time until correspondence is broken indefinitely. These relationships often begin, or rekindle because of mutual interests or friends held in common.
Mirage relations occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' mobilizing functions, but whose dual seeking (5th) functions are the other partners' role functions.
Relationships of mirage often become quite close and are easy to begin because both individuals are able to communicate effectively with one another because partners share a preference for thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting.
Mirror relations occur between types who share the same ego functions, yet place different emphases on them; the dominant function of one partner is the creative function of the other. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally.
An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing between Ej and Ip, or between Ep and Ij. Ejs find the passive, unstable Ip behavior to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while Ips find the restless and proactive actions of Ej types paranoid and stifling. Similarly, Ep types find Ij types to be somewhat dull and boring, while Ij types see Ep types as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.
Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will perceive similar situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value, but such relations quickly become exhausted and boring since there is nothing more to discuss once informational potentials reach the level.
Cooperation relations occur between partners who have the same creative function but differing dominant functions. As a result, partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Partners will often approach their related fields with vastly different agendas and will generate conflict when working as a team. These relations become formal and business like as to avoid open debate and conflict.
Congenerity relations occur between types who share the same dominant function but possess different creative functions. Partners often see each other as interesting people and are often able to see each other's motivations, but tailor their actions towards areas where the other partner is unskilled or uninterested, as the creative function for one partner is the place of least resistance of the other.
Congenerity relationships are often similar to mirror relationships where ideas are communicated through drawn out dialog. These relationships are easy to begin because both partners share a similar type of intelligence, and are able to communicate it easily to one another.
Relations of Quasi-identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. One partner's ego functions are the other partner's demonstrative and observant functions. As quasi-identicals have opposite functions, they will often have similar interests (id block and ego blocks contain the same functions) and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.
Interestingly, Quasi-Identity partners often identify themselves as being very different from the partner. Outside observers often have trouble seeing the differences that the individual sees between himself and the partner. At the same time Quasi-Identity relations are most productive to assess a new idea and find its weak points since quasi-identicals have an expert view from the other side.
Extinguishment relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. This relations often consist of similar lifestyles but differing thought processes. Partners will have similar interests and areas of expertise, and have little trouble communicating with one another.
Still, misunderstanding and conflict arise when partners come to vastly different conclusions about specific ideas or events.
Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by differing values, discomfort, and mutual misunderstanding.
Partners in a super-ego relationship are often fascinated or terrified by their partners lack of similarity to themselves. Super-ego partners are constantly aware of their total opposition in values to the partner. Outside observers are often similarly aware.
Relations of Conflict are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict. Conflictors are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictors may take for granted truths that their partners will dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict is not well understood, but prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end. Conflictors also are of opposite temperaments, a fact which both partners often find irritating. Conflictors usually are rather interesting for each other, but also rather tiresome.
Relations of request are asymmetrical relations; one type requests another. The request recipient's dual seeking function is the requester's creative function, and as a result the request recipient often takes an interest in the requester. However, the requester's dual seeking function is the request recipient's place of least resistance, and the requester finds the request recipient a highly uninteresting person. Relations of request frequently end with the departure of the requester.
Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisee is often on the defensive since the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's point of least resistance (the function most vulnerable to criticism). The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his objective and benevolent assistance.
Groups of types 
Clubs are groups that reflect spheres of activity. There are 4 clubs, each with 4 types:
- Pragmatists (ST): ESTp, ESTj, ISTp, ISTj; or SLE, LSE, LSI, SLI
- Researchers (NT): ENTp, ENTj, INTp, INTj; or ILE, LIE, LII, ILI
- Socials (SF): ESFp, ESFj, ISFp, ISFj; or SEE, ESE, ESI, SEI
- Humanitarians (NF): ENFp, ENFj, INFp, INFj; or IEE, EIE, EII, IEI
A quadra is a group of four types in which only identity, dual, activity, and mirror relations occur. Quadras are distinguished by offering the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the quadra is due to the fact that all types in the quadra seek to give expression to the shared set of information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and to de-emphasize the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks.
Extraverted Rational Temperament (Ej). Extraverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)
Introverted Rational Temperament (Ij). Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)
Extraverted Irrational Temperament (Ep). Extraverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)
Introverted Irrational Temperament (Ip). Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)
Beside Gulenko's, there are several other theories of correlation between temperaments and socionic types, although almost all socionic authors support Eysenck's view that temperaments do correlate with the E/I factor.
Other models 
In addition to Model A, two other models are in wide use by socionists. Model B, created by Aleksandr Bukalov, is designed to reconcile the socionics standpoint with the so-called "Model J" (Jung's outlook) and uses sixteen functional components instead of eight. The model uses the same eight functions as Model A, but further differentiates them by attributing positive and negative polarities to each. Model B also refines Model A's strong/weak concept by attributing vectors of dimensionality to each function. This allows it to describe with precision why some functions are relied on more than others.
The four dimensions are
- globality (also thought of as "time")
- cultural normatives
Experience is the lowest dimension; globality is the highest. The importance of the dimension system lies in its clarification of the differences between strong and weak functions. Although any type may learn information specific to any function with adequate study, only the strong functions have the vectors of situation which are required to create new knowledge. The types are thus reliant on each other in their search for understanding.
Model T 
In recent years, socionists have sought to identify cognitive correlates for functions. Recent advances in cognitive psychology have facilitated understanding of information processing at the cognitive level. Introversion has been correlated to high brain-blood levels; extroversion to lower levels. Viktor Talanov has proposed to identify the processing centers of the four Jungian functions—logic, ethics, intuition, and sensing—as a first step towards demonstrating the existence of the function types. (called simply "functions" in socionics).
Methods of type identification 
Socionists often use several methods when determining a personality type.
- Analysis of behavior, interview (including special questionnaires), biography
- Analysis of nonverbal behavior (mimic, gestures, plastique, etc.)
Nonverbal behavior (also called image method) is a particularly popular method popularized by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, but rarely used as basic method, more as auxiliary. It is based on analysis of impressions from nonverbal behavior and associating them with features of types. Often the image method is used to create an initial hypothesis about a person's type, which is tested against more reliable methods.
Development and criticism of socionics 
Currently socionics widely academic recognition and is taught in over 150 universities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Romania. Its methods are used in a variety of humanitarian and technical disciplines, as evidenced by more than 800 doctoral theses. International Institute of Socionics and various universities have been performed numerous experiments to test the theory of socionics, which was attended by over 10,000 people.
Socionics has been brought up at conferences on psychology, where its practical applications were discussed. For instance, in 2005 socionics was discussed at the British and East European Psychology Meeting  in Kraków (2005), which was attended by British, American and Eastern European psychologists. Psychologist Rosemary Nodder from the University of Hertfordshire represented socionics for the event.
The problems of socionics, its methodology and prospects for development are brought up frequently at International Socionics conferences (see list of conference talks (Russian)).
See also 
- Аугустинавичюте А. (1996). Социон, или Основы соционики. Соционика, ментология и психология личности, 4-5. (In Russian. Title can be translated as Augustinavichiute A. (1996). The Socion, or Socionics Basics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 4-5).
- "Socionics: Personality Types and Relationships". Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- Седых Р. (1994). Информационный психоанализ. Соционика как метапсихология. НПП Менатеп-Траст. ISBN 5-900449-02-5. (In Russian. Title can be translated as: Sedikh R. Informational psychoanalysis. Socionics as a metapsychology) Text is available online Bookap.info
- "Introduction to Socionics".
- The Applied Socionics School (rus)
- The Applied Socionics School, branch in Murmansk (rus)
- The Applied Socionics School, branch in Petrozavodsk (rus)
- The Applied Socionics School, branch in Rostov-na-Donu (rus)
- The Applied Socionics School, branch in Krasnodar (rus)
- The School of System Socionics (en)
- Примерная основная образовательная программа высшего профессионального образования. Направление подготовки 040100 "Социология" (Russian). Title can be translated as: Approximate basic educational program of higher education. Direction of training 040100 "Sociology"
- Socionics in educational process: some universities, programs, curricula
- Арутюнов В.Х., Мішин В.М., Свінціцький В.М. Методологія соціально-економічного пізнання. Навч. посібник. — К.: КНЕУ, 2005. — 353 c. ((Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Arutyunov V.H., Mishin V.M. and Svintsitskyi V.M. Methodology of socio-economic knowledge)
- Alexandrova N.H., Boyadjieva N., Sapundzhieva K., Kolarova C.D. "Социониката в социалната сфера"- Sofia Univ.izd. St. Kliment Ohridski, 2004. - 149 p. ISBN 954-07-1876-7
- László-Kuţiuk M. Ghid de autocunoasţere. Elemente de socionică. - Bucureşti, 2000. ISBN 973-97141-5-3.
- Суртаева Н. Н., Иванова О. Н.Педагогическая соционика и проблемы конфликтных взаимодействий. — СПб. ИОВ РАО, 2002. — 135 с. ISBN 5-258-00021-4 (Russian). Title can be translated as: Surtaeva N.N., Ivanova O.N. Educational socionics and problems of conflict interactions
- Федорова В.К. Использование педагогической соционики в решении конфликтных взаимодействий субъектов образовательного процесса Автореферат дисс. канд. пед. наук. — Омск, 1998. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Fedorova V.K. Using Educational Socionics in resolving conflict interactions in educational process. - Summary of the thesises candidate. ped. sciences. - Omsk, 1998.)
- Антошкин В.Н. Оптимизация управления системой коммуникативной деятельности в социальной работе (2004). (Russian). Title can be translated as: Antoshkin V.N. Optimization of system management communication activity in social work
- Socionics application in Aviation
- Типовая учебная программа по дисциплине: «Подготовка авиационного персонала в области человеческого фактора» ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Model curriculum for the discipline: Flight Crew Training in the field of human factors)
- Грачев В.И. Библиотечная соционика — новое направление изучения библиотечной жизни // Научные и технические библиотеки. — 1993. — № 7. — С.19-20.((Russian). Title can be translated as: Grachev V.I. Library socionics - a new direction of studying the life of the library // Scientific and technical libraries. - 1993. - № 7. - P.19-20.)
- Исаева Е.Н. Перспективы соционики в библиотечном менеджменте // Московский государственный университет культуры и искусств. — М., 1999—2008. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Isayeva E.N. Perspectives of Socionics in Library Management // Moscow State University of Culture and Arts. - M., 1999-2008.)
- Гуленко В. В., Тыщенко В. П. Юнг в школе. Соционика — межвозрастной педагогике. — Новосибирск: изд-во Новосибирского университета, 1997. — 268 с. ISBN 5-89441-014-2. (Russian). Title can be translated as: Gulenko V.V. and Tyshchenko V.P. Socionics to between-age pedagogy. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House of Novosibirsk State University, 1997. - 268 p.
- Богданова І.М. Шляхи вдосконалення професійної підготовки майбутніх учителів // Наукa і освіта. — 2011. — № 4. — Ч. 1. — С. 34-36. ((Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Bogdanova I.M. The ways to improve the training of future teachers // Science and education. - 2011. - № 4. - Part 1. - Pp. 34-36.)
- Бобков В.В. Дифференцированный подход к обучению: психо-информационная точка зрения. Часть 1 // Электронный научный журнал «Исследовано в России». — 2006. — С. 371—400.((Russian). Title can be translated as: Bobkov V.V. A differentiated approach to teaching: psycho-informational point of view. Part 1 // Electronic Scientific Journal "Investigated in Russia". - 2006. - Pp. 371-400.)
- Иванов Ю. В. Деловая соционика — М.: Бизнес-школа «Интел-Синтез», 2001. — 184 с. — (Библиотека журнала «Управление персоналом»). ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Ivanov Ju.V. Business socionics - Moscow Business School "Intel-Synthesis", 2001. - 184 p. - (Library of the "Personnel Management" Journal). )
- Измайлова М.А. Психология рекламной деятельности. Практическое пособие. — М. ИТК «Дашков и К», 2009. ISBN 978-5-394-00261-8. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Izmailova M.A. Psychology of advertising. Practical Guide. - Moskow, 2009.)
- Киселева Е.С. Роль и значение потребителя в системе маркетинга и способы управления поведением на основе соционики // Известия Томского политехнического университета. — 2008. — № 6. — Т. 312. — С. 59-64.((Russian). Title can be translated as: Kiseleva E.S. The role and importance of the consumer in the marketing system and ways of control consumer's behavior on the basis of socionics // Proceedings of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. - 2008. - № 6. - Vol. 312. - P. 59-64.)
- Ласло-Куцюк М. Ключ до белетристики. — Бухарест: Мустанг, 2002. — 291 с. ISBN 973-99400-6-4. ((Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: László-Kuţiuk M. The key to fiction. - Bucureşti: Mustang, 2002.)
- Комиссарова Л. М. Лингвосоционическая методология изучения языковой личности в русском языке. Автореф. дис. на соиск. учен. степ. канд. филол. наук — Барнаул: Изд-во АГУ, 2002. — 23 с. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Komissarova L.M. Linguistic-socionic methodology of study of language personality in the Russian language.)
- Хачмафова З.Р. Лексико-тематическая группа «чувство» в лексиконе современной женской прозы. // Вестник Адыгейского государственного университета. — 2009. — № 1. (Russian). Title can be translated as: Hachmafova Z.R. Lexical-thematic group "feeling" in the lexicon of contemporary women's prose. // Bulletin of Adyghe State University. - 2009. - № 1.
- Голев Н.Д., Кузнецова А.В. Лингвосоционическое моделирование экстравертного и интровертного типов языковой личности // Вестник КемГУ. Филология. — 2009. — № 3. — С. 95-98. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Golev N.D. and Kuznetsova A.V. Linguistic-socionic modeling of extraverted and introverted types of language personality)
- Залогина Е.М. Языковая личность: лингвистический и психологический аспекты: На материале романа «Бесы» и «Дневника писателя» Ф.М. Достоевского: Автореферат дисс. … канд. филол. наук. — М., 2005. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Zalogina E.M. Language personality: linguistic and psychological aspects: based on the novel "Demons" and "Diary of a Writer" by F.M. Dostoevsky.)
- Букалов Г.К., Корабельников Р.В. Основы поиска новых методов повышения износостойкости рабочих органов текстильных машин. — Кострома: Изд-во КТГУ, 2001. — 126 с. ISBN 5-8285-0013-9. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Bukalov G.K., Korabelnikov R.V. Basics of search for new methods for increasing the wear resistance of the working body of textile machines. - Kostroma, 2001.)
- Букалов А.В. Интегральная соционика. Типы коллективов, наций, государств. Этносоционика. // Соционика, ментология и психология личности. — 1998. — № 5. — С. 13-17. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Bukalov A.B. Integral Socionics. Types of groups, nations and states. Ethnosocionics. // Socionics, mentology and personality psychology. - 1998. - № 5. - Pp. 13-17.)
- Jung, C.G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol.6), 1976 (1921), ISBN 0-691-01813-8 The chapter X, General description of types contains descriptions of basic psychological functions and 8 major psychological types.
- Аугустинавичюте А. (1995). Комментарий к типологии Юнга и введение в информационный метаболизм. Юнг и введение в информационный метаболизм. (Russian). Title can be translated as Augustinavichiute A. (1995) A Commentary on Jung's Typology and an Introduction to the Information Metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2.
- Аугустинавичюте А. Дуальная природа человека (1978). ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Augustinavichiute A. The Dual Nature of Man (1978)).
- Socionics.us, "Dual nature of man"
- Socionics.kiev.ua, "Methodology"
- socionics.com, "Things to consider about MBTI® theory (Part 1)"
- Socionics.us, intro
- Filatova E. Bookap.info, Искусство понимать себя и окружающих. ((Russian), The Art of Understanding Oneself and Others.)
- Wikisocion.org, "Portrait of a Modern Socionist
- Boukalov, A.V. (1995). On the dimensions of the functions of information metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2.
- Аугустинавичюте Аушра Bookz.ru, Теория функций. Функционика (Russian) The title can be translated as Function theory. Functionics.
- Гуленко В. (2003). Менеджмент слаженной команды. Соционика для руководителей. Астрель. ((Russian). Title can be translated as: Gulenko V. Management of well co-ordinated team. Socionics for managers.) Text is available online
- Boukalov, A.V. (2004). 16-component model of TIM and Socionics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 3.
- Stukas, V.A. (2008). Bases of socionics. Course of lectures. Management and Personnel: Psychology of Management, Socionics, and Sociology, 12.
- Hilarygray.btinternet.co.uk[dead link]
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Information resources 
- the16Types.info, English speaking Socionics community
- Socioniko.net, Multilingual Socionic Site
- Socionics.us, contains notes on Augustinaviciute's books
- Socionika.com, contains numerous articles from many authors
- Socionic.info, International Institute of Socionics
- , School of System Socionics, English version
- Socioniko.net, short test by Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova
- socionics.us, by Rick DeLong
- Sociotype.com, by Ryan Valaas
- Socionics.com, by Sergei Ganin
- socionictest.net, 40-questions test
- zhilkin.com/socio, Reinin traits ↔ sociotype