Socorro, New Mexico
|Socorro, New Mexico|
|— City —|
|• Mayor||Ravi Bhasker|
|• Total||14.4 sq mi (37.4 km2)|
|• Land||14.4 sq mi (37.3 km2)|
|• Water||0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2)|
|Elevation||4,603 ft (1,403 m)|
|• Density||630/sq mi ( 240/km2)|
|Time zone||Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|GNIS feature ID||0938832|
Socorro is a city in Socorro County in the U.S. state of New Mexico. It stands in the Rio Grande Valley at an elevation of 4,579 feet (1,396 m). The population was 9,051 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Socorro County.
In June 1598, Juan de Oñate led a group of Spanish settlers through the Jornada del Muerto, an inhospitable patch of desert that ends just south of the present-day city of Socorro. As the Spaniards emerged from the desert, Piro Indians of the pueblo of Teypana gave the Spaniards food and water. Therefore, the Spaniards renamed this pueblo Socorro, which means "help" or "aid". Later, the name "Socorro" would be applied to the nearby Piro pueblo of Pilabó.
Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro, the first Catholic mission in the area, was probably established c. 1626. Fray Agustín de Vetancurt would later write that around 600 people lived in the area during this period. Mines in the Socorro mountains were opened by 1626.
During the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, Spanish refugees stopped in the pueblo of Socorro. A number of Piro Indians followed the Spaniards as they left the province to go south to safety. With no protection of Spanish troops, Socorro was destroyed and the remaining Piro were killed by the Apache and other tribes.
The Spanish did not initially resettle Socorro when they re-conquered New Mexico. Other than El Paso, there were no Spanish settlements south of Sabinal (which is approximately 30 miles (48 km) north of Socorro) until the 1800s. In 1800, governor Fernando Chacon gave the order to resettle Socorro and other villages in the area. However, Socorro was not resettled until about 1815. In 1817, 70 Belen residents petitioned the crown for land in Socorro. The 1833 Socorro census lists over 400 residents, with a total of 1,774 people living within the vicinity of the village.
Territorial period 
In August 1846, during the Mexican–American War, New Mexico was occupied by the American Army. In Las Vegas, New Mexico, Colonel Stephen W. Kearny proclaimed New Mexico's independence from Mexico. On their way to begin their assault on Mexico, American troops stopped in Socorro. A British officer, Lt. George Ruxton, commented that these soldiers were "unwashed and unshaven, were ragged and dirty, without uniforms..." and were lacking in discipline.
In September 1850, New Mexico became a territory of the United States. At the time, New Mexico encompassed what is now the states of New Mexico and Arizona. In 1850, the population of Socorro was only 543 people. This included 100 American soldiers who were soon moved to Valverde.
The first military post built near Socorro was Fort Conrad, 30 miles (48 km) south of the town. Built in August 1851, the fort was badly constructed and was abandoned for Fort Craig, located a few miles away. Fort Craig was first occupied on March 31, 1854.
The New Mexico School of Mines (now the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) was founded in Socorro in 1889.
Geography and geology 
Socorro is located at  75 miles (121 km) south of Albuquerque, at an average elevation of 4,605 feet (1,404 m). The town lies adjacent to the Rio Grande in a landscape dominated by the Rio Grande rift and numerous extinct volcanoes. The immediate region encompasses approximately 6,000 feet (1,800 m) of vertical relief between the Rio Grande and the Magdalena Mountains. Notable nearby locales include the Cibola National Forest, the Bureau of Land Management Quebradas Scenic Backcountry Byway, and the Bosque del Apache and Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuges. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles (37 km2), of which 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2), or 0.21%, is water.(34.061759, −106.899424),
|Climate data for Socorro, New Mexico (1981–2010)|
|Average high °F (°C)||53.9
|Average low °F (°C)||22.1
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.39
|Snowfall inches (cm)||0.9
Demographics and economy 
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,877 people, 3,415 households, and 2,151 families residing in the city. The population density was 615.8 people per square mile (237.9/km²). There were 3,940 housing units at an average density of 273.3 per square mile (105.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.16% White, 0.74% African American, 2.77% Native American, 2.24% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 23.24% from other races, and 4.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 54.50% of the population. There were 3,415 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.0% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02. In the City of Socorro 25.4% of the total population was under the age of 18, 16.9% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 106.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $22,530, and the median income for a family was $33,013. Males had a median income of $31,517 versus $23,071 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,250. About 24.1% of families and 32.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.4% of those under age 18 and 23.6% of those age 65 or over.
The languages spoken at home were 62.41% English, 35.64% Spanish, 0.90% Chinese, 0.76% German, and 0.36% Navajo.
Major employers in Socorro include the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), the Bureau of Land Management, Socorro General Hospital, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, municipal and county governments, Socorro Consolidated Schools, and a large number of small businesses, many represented by the Socorro County Chamber of Commerce.
Notable people 
- Elfego Baca (1865–1945), lawman, lawyer, and politician
- Conrad Hilton (1887–1979), founder of the Hilton Hotels chain
- Willard Hughes Rollings (1948–2008), historian of Native Americans
- Robert Fortune Sanchez (1938–2012), Roman Catholic archbishop
Socorro High School 
Socorro has one public city-named high school in Class 1A/3A with a student body of about 600. The mascot is a Warrior, and the school colors are blue and white. School sports include Golf (B/G), Soccer (B/G), Cross Country (B/G), Track (B/G), Football (B), Baseball/Softball (B/G), Cheerleading (B/G), Charisma Dance (B/G), Swimming (B/G), Volleyball (G), and Basketball (B/G). The school also fields a competitive team for Science Olympiad, and Science Bowl. Arts at Socorro High include Concert/Marching and Jazz Band.
Zamora UFO Incident 
Socorro is famous as the site of an alleged UFO incident. On April 24, 1964, Lonnie Zamora, a local policeman, claimed to have observed a UFO and two little men.
Media sightings 
Socorro was mentioned in the 1974 movie Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, though in a somewhat derogatory sense, as Ellen Burstyn's character decided to leave the town for Tucson. The aftermath scene of Bustyn's character's husband's fatal accident at the beginning of the film, although implied as being in Socorro, was actually filmed in Tucson.
Elfego Baca Golf Shoot 
The Elfego Baca Golf Shoot is named after a former mayor of Socorro who survived a gun battle near what is now Reserve, New Mexico, involving over 4,000 bullets that were fired over the course of 36 hours. Teeing off from Socorro Peak, also known as M Mountain, at an altitude of 7,243 feet (2,208 m), golfers proceed down the side of the mountain some 2,550 vertical feet to the one hole almost three miles (5 km) away. Surviving rattlesnakes, gnats, cacti, treacherous terrain and the New Mexican sun and heat, golfers have a chance at winning the title to what is considered one of the two most difficult golf courses in the world.
Mike Stanley, an employee of the EMRTC, has won or tied for the win a record 18 times in the history of the shoot which dates back to 1960.
Points of interest 
- New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
- San Miguel de Socorro – San Miguel Mission
- National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array
- Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge
- Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge
- Socorro Nature Area
- Socorro Riverine Parks
- Trinity (nuclear test) site, White Sands Missile Range
- Quebradas Region
- El Camino Real Heritage Center
- New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Mineralogical Museum
- Cibola National Forest, Magdalena District
- San Lorenzo Canyon (hiking)
- Box Canyon (climbing, hiking
- Enchanted Tower (climbing)
- Regional Mountain Biking
Arts and music 
Socorro is home to many artists and musicians. Local artists include Karyn DeBont, G.E. Grey, Sharon Fullingim, Natasha Isenhour, Skeeter Leard, Margi Lucena, and Jan Thomas. There are also frequent gallery exhibitions and studio events in Socorro. Notable musicians and bands include Johnny Dean, Jeanne Dixon & Bill Giebitz, Doug Figgs, Mariam Funke, Toby Jaramillo, Ronna Kalish, Rob Long, Carlos Marerro, Marian Royal, Jim Ruff, Mary Templeton, Frances Deters and many others. Live music is played weekly at local bars and restaurants in town, particularly at the Capitol Bar, Bistro, Sofia's and the M Mountain Coffeehouse. In addition to local performers, many musicians visit Socorro as part of New Mexico Tech's Performing Arts Series.
Musician Jeff Bhasker is a Socorro native.
An up-to-date listing of music events in and around Socorro can be found at socorromusic.com.
Zamora UFO reference 
- Socorro "Saucer" In A Pentagon Pantry, Ray Stanford, author. Blueapple Books, 1976.
- X Descending, Christian Lambright, author. X Desk Publishing, 2012. ppgs. 269–274
- The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial, Jerome Clark, author. Visible Ink Press, 1998. ppgs. 545–558
- "Socorro, New Mexico". City of Socorro. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Marshal, Michael P. & Walt, Henry J., “Rio Abajo: Prehistory and History of a Rio Grande Province” (Santa Fe: New Mexico Historical Preservation Program, 1984), p 248
- Marshal & Walt, "Rio Abajo", p 248.
- Zarate Salmeron, Geronimo de (1966) Relaciones: an account of things seen and learned by Father Jeronimo de Zarati Salmeron from the year 1538 to year 1626 (translated by Alicia Ronstadt Milich) Horn & Wallace, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Section XXXIV (page 56), OCLC 221277018
- Marshal & Walt, "Rio Abajo", pp. 248–249 .
- Marshal & Walt, "Rio Abajo", p 280.
- Marshal & Walt, "Rio Abajo", p 285.
- Ramirez Alief, Teresa, et al., eds. "New Mexico Census of 1833 and 1845: Socorro and Surrounding Communities of the Rio Abajo." (Albuquerque: New Mexico Genealogical Society, Inc., 1994.) p.xiii.
- Ramirez Alief, Teresa, et al., "New Mexico Census: Socorro" pp. 2–10; 32
- Marshal & Walt, "Rio Abajo", p 249.
- Ashcroft, Bruce, "The Territorial History of Socorro, New Mexico", (El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso, 1988), pp. 4–5
- Ashcroft, "The Territorial History of Socorro", p. 6
- Marshal and Walt, "Rio Abajo", p. 273
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 05, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- MLA Data Center, retrieved 10-21-07
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Socorro, New Mexico|
- El Defensor Chieftain newspaper
- Socorro News
- City of Socorro
- Socorro County Chamber of Commerce
- The Socorro NM Web
- New Mexico Tech
- Socorro Mountain Biking Guide
- Socorro Area Bouldering Guide
- Socorro, NM info
- Steppin' Out arts tabloid
- Socorro Striders and Riders