Socotra

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For the submerged rock in the East China Sea, see Socotra Rock.
Socotra
Native name: سُقُطْرَى
Suquṭra
Socotra satview.jpg
Landsat view over Socotra
Socotra overview.PNG
Geography
Location Indian Ocean
Coordinates 12°30′36″N 53°55′12″E / 12.51000°N 53.92000°E / 12.51000; 53.92000Coordinates: 12°30′36″N 53°55′12″E / 12.51000°N 53.92000°E / 12.51000; 53.92000
Archipelago Socotra islands
Total islands 4
Major islands Socotra, Abd al Kuri, Samhah, Darsah
Area 3,796 km2 (1,466 sq mi)
Length 132 km (82 mi)
Width 50 km (31 mi)
Highest elevation 1,503 m (4,931 ft)
Highest point MĀI point in the Haghier Mountains
Country
Yemen
Governorate Hadhramaut
Districts Hadibu (east)
Qulansiyah wa 'Abd-al-Kūrī (west)
Largest city Hadibu (pop. 8,545)
Demographics
Population 42,842 (as of 2004 census)
Density 11.3 /km2 (29.3 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups predominantly Soqotris; minority Somalis, Arabs, Indians, and Black Africans descended from various ethnic groups[1]
Additional information
Official name: Socotra Archipelago
Type: Natural
Criteria: x
Designated: 2008 (32nd session)
Reference No. 1263
State Party:  Yemen
Region: Arab States

Socotra (Arabic: سُقُطْرَىSuquṭra), also spelled Soqotra, is a small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean.

The largest island, also called Socotra, is about 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some 240 kilometres (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa and 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula.[2] The island is very isolated and a third of its plant life is found nowhere else on the planet. It has been described as "the most alien-looking place on Earth". The island measures 132 kilometres (82 mi) in length and 49.7 kilometres (30.9 mi) in width.[3]

Socotra is part of Yemen. It had long been a part of the 'Adan Governorate. In 2004, it became attached to the Hadhramaut Governorate, which is much closer to the island than 'Adan (although the nearest governorate is Al Mahrah).

Etymology[edit]

In the notes to his translation of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, G.W.B. Huntingford remarks that the name Suqotra is not Greek in origin, but from the Sanskrit dvīpa ("island") sukhadhara ("supporting, or providing bliss").[4] Another probable origin of the name is the Arabic suq meaning "market" and qotra meaning "dripping frankincense".[5]

History[edit]

Map of the Socotra archipelago

There was initially an Oldowan culture in Socotra. Oldowan stone tools were found in the area around Hadibo by V.A. Zhukov, a member of the Russian Complex Expedition in 2008.[6][7][8]

Socotra appears as Dioskouridou ("of Dioscurides") in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century AD Greek navigation aid. A recent discovery of texts in several languages, including a wooden tablet in Palmyrene dated to the 3rd century AD, indicate the diverse origins of those who used Socotra as a trading base in antiquity.[9]

In 2001 a group of Belgian speleologists of the Socotra Karst Project made a spectacular discovery. Deep inside a huge cave on the island Socotra they came across a large number of inscriptions, drawings and archaeological objects[10][11] that further investigation showed had been left by sailors who visited the island between the 1st century BC and the 6th century AD. Most of the texts are written in the Indian Brāhmī script, but there are also inscriptions in South-Arabian, Ethiopian, Greek, Palmyrene and Bactrian scripts and languages. This corpus of nearly 250 texts and drawings thus constitutes one of the main sources for the investigation of Indian Ocean trade networks in the first centuries of our era.[12]

A local tradition holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. In the 10th century, the Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani stated that in his time most of the inhabitants were Christians. Socotra is also mentioned in The Travels of Marco Polo; Marco Polo did not pass anywhere near the island but recorded a report that "the inhabitants are baptised Christians and have an 'archbishop'" who, it is further explained, "has nothing to do with the Pope in Rome, but is subject to an archbishop who lives at Baghdad". They were Nestorians but also practised ancient magic rituals despite the warnings of their archbishop.[13]

In 1507, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Tristão da Cunha with Afonso de Albuquerque landed at the then capital of Suq and captured the port after a stiff battle. Their objective was to set a base in a strategic place on the route to India, and to liberate the presumed friendly Christians from Islamic rule. Tomás Fernandes started to build a fortress at Suq, the Forte de São Miguel de Socotorá. However, the infertility of the land led to famine and sickness in the garrison. Moreover the lack of a proper harbour for wintering led to the loss of many moored Portuguese ships, the most important of which was the Santo António gallion under the command of captain Manuel Pais da Veiga.[14] Thus the Portuguese abandoned the island four years later, as it was not advantageous as a base.[15]

The islands passed under the control of the Mahra sultans in 1511. In 1834, the United Kingdom stationed a garrison on the island. Plans were made to make it a coaling station for ships bound for India, but the climate was considered unsuitable and the British left in 1839.[16] In January 1876, it became a British protectorate along with the remainder of the Mahra State of Qishn and Socotra. The P&O ship Aden sank after being wrecked on a reef near Socotra, in 1897, with the loss of 78 lives.

In October 1967, the Mahra sultanate was abolished. On 30 November 1967, Socotra became part of South Yemen. Since Yemeni unification in 1990 it has been part of the Republic of Yemen.

Somali pirates have begun using Socotra as a refueling stop for hijacked maritime vessels.[17]

Geography and climate[edit]

Halah Cave (كهف حالة) east of the island. Stalagmites and stalactites show how high it can reach compared to the 1.7 metres (5.6 ft) man with the torch. It is several hundred metres deep, with total darkness.

Socotra is one of the most-isolated landforms on Earth of continental origin (i.e. not of volcanic origin). The archipelago was once part of the supercontinent of Gondwana and detached during the Miocene epoch, in the same set of rifting events that opened the Gulf of Aden to its northwest.[18]

The archipelago consists of the main island of Socotra (3,665 km2 (1,415 sq mi)), the three smaller islands of Abd al Kuri, Samhah and Darsa and small rock outcrops like Ka'l Fir'awn and Sābūnīyah that are uninhabitable by humans but important for seabirds.[19]

The main island has three geographical terrains: the narrow coastal plains, a limestone plateau permeated with karstic caves, and the Haghier Mountains.[20] The mountains rise to 1,503 metres (4,931 ft).[21] The island is about 125 kilometres (78 mi) long and 45 kilometres (28 mi) north to south.[22]

The climate of Socotra is classified in the Köppen climate classification as BWh and BSh, meaning a tropical desert climate and semi-desert climate with a mean annual temperature over 25 °C (78 °F). Yearly rainfall is light, but is fairly spread throughout the year. Generally the higher inland areas receive more rain than the coastal lowlands, due to orographic lift provided by the interior mountains.[citation needed] The monsoon season brings strong winds and high seas. For many centuries, the sailors of Gujarat called the maritime route near Socotra as "Sikotro Sinh", meaning the lion of Socotra, that constantly roars—referring to the high seas near Socotra.[citation needed]

Climate data for Socotra
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27.2
(81)
28.5
(83.3)
30.5
(86.9)
32.7
(90.9)
34.2
(93.6)
33.9
(93)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
32.7
(90.9)
31.4
(88.5)
29.8
(85.6)
28.0
(82.4)
31.1
(87.98)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
23.4
(74.1)
25.1
(77.2)
27.5
(81.5)
28.9
(84)
29.0
(84.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
26.0
(78.8)
24.2
(75.6)
22.7
(72.9)
25.96
(78.73)
Average low °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
18.3
(64.9)
19.8
(67.6)
22.2
(72)
23.7
(74.7)
24.1
(75.4)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
22.6
(72.7)
20.6
(69.1)
18.7
(65.7)
17.5
(63.5)
20.86
(69.55)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
18
(0.71)
14
(0.55)
22
(0.87)
37
(1.46)
18
(0.71)
12
(0.47)
15
(0.59)
27
(1.06)
38
(1.5)
18
(0.71)
16
(0.63)
258
(10.16)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.0 mm) 2.0 2.0 2.1 3.4 4.1 6.0 9.7 9.3 4.9 3.2 3.0 3.0 52.7
 % humidity 20 21 24 27 29 29 28 27 27 25 22 21 25.2
Source: Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia[23]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Endemic tree species Dracaena cinnabari
An 1890s photograph of endemic tree species Dendrosicyos socotrana, the cucumber tree, by Henry Ogg Forbes

Socotra is considered the jewel of biodiversity in the Arabian Sea.[24] In the 1990s, a team of United Nations biologists conducted a survey of the archipelago’s flora and fauna. They counted nearly 700 endemic species, found nowhere else on earth; only Hawaii, New Caledonia, and the Galapagos Islands have more impressive numbers.[25]

The long geological isolation of the Socotra archipelago and its fierce heat and drought have combined to create a unique and spectacular endemic flora. Botanical field surveys led by the Centre for Middle Eastern Plants (part of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh) indicate that 307 out of the 825 (37%) plant species on Socotra are endemic, i.e., they are found nowhere else on Earth.[26] The entire flora of the Socotra Archipelago has been assessed for the IUCN Red List, with 3 Critically Endangered and 27 Endangered plant species recognised in 2004.[26]

One of the most striking of Socotra's plants is the dragon's blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari), which is a strange-looking, umbrella-shaped tree. Its red sap was thought to be the dragon's blood of the ancients, sought after as a dye, and today used as paint and varnish.[26] Also important in ancient times were Socotra's various endemic aloes, used medicinally, and for cosmetics. Other endemic plants include the giant succulent tree Dorstenia gigas, the cucumber tree Dendrosicyos socotranus, the rare Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), Aloe perryi, and Boswellia socotrana.[27]

The island group also has a rich fauna, including several endemic species of birds, such as the Socotra starling (Onychognathus frater), the Socotra sunbird (Nectarinia balfouri), Socotra bunting (Emberiza socotrana), Socotra cisticola (Cisticola haesitatus), Socotra sparrow (Passer insularis), Socotra golden-winged grosbeak (Rhynchostruthus socotranus), and a species in a monotypic genus, the Socotra warbler (Incana incana).[27] Many of the bird species are endangered by predation by non-native feral cats.[25] While there are no native amphibians, the reptiles species are over 90 percent endemic to Socotra and include skinks, legless lizards, and one species of chameleon, Chamaeleo monachus.

As with many isolated island systems, bats are the only mammals native to Socotra. In contrast, the coral reefs of Socotra are diverse, with many endemic species.[27] Socotra is also one of the homes of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.[28]

Over two thousand years of human settlement on the islands have slowly but continuously changed the environment, and according to Jonathan Kingdon, "the animals and plants that remain represent a degraded fraction of what once existed".[27] The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea says the island had crocodiles and large lizards, and the present reptilian fauna appears to be greatly reduced. Until a few centuries ago, there were rivers and wetlands on the island, greater stocks of the endemic trees, and abundant pasture. The Portuguese recorded the presence of water buffaloes in the early 17th century. Now there are only sand gullies, and many native plants only survive where there is greater moisture or protection from livestock.[27] The remaining Socotra fauna is greatly threatened by goats and other introduced species, as well as climate change.

UNESCO recognition[edit]

The island was recognised by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a world natural heritage site in July 2008. The European Union has supported such a move, calling on both UNESCO and International Organisation of Protecting Environment to classify the island archipelago among the environmental heritages.[29]

Demographics[edit]

Most of the inhabitants are indigenous Soqotri people, who are of Southern Arabian descent,[1] and are said to be especially closely related with the Qara and Mahra groups of Southern Arabia.[30] There are also a number of residents of Somali and Indian origin.[1] In addition, the island is inhabited by various Black African peoples, who are believed to be descendants of runaway slaves.[30]

The Semitic language Soqotri, spoken originally only in Socotra, is related to such other Modern South Arabian languages on the Arabian mainland as Mehri, Harsusi, Bathari, Shehri, and Hobyot. Soqotri is also spoken by minority populations in the United Arab Emirates and other Persian Gulf states.

The majority of male residents on Socotra are reported to be in the J* subclade of Y-DNA haplogroup J. Several of the female lineages on the island, notably those in mtDNA haplogroup N, are found nowhere else on earth.

Almost all inhabitants of Socotra, numbering nearly 50,000, live on the homonymous main island of the archipelago.[24] The principal city, Hadibu (with a population of 8,545 at the census of 2004); the second largest town, Qulansiyah (population 3,862); and Qād̨ub (population 929) are all located on the north coast of the island of Socotra.[31] Only about 450 people live on 'Abd-al-Kūrī and 100 on Samha; the island of Darsa and the islets of the archipelago are uninhabited.[32]

The archipelago forms two districts of the Hadhramaut Governorate:

  • the district of Hadibu (حديبو), with a population of 32,285 and a district seat at Hadibu, consists of the eastern two-thirds of the main island of Socotra;
  • the district of Qulansiyah wa 'Abd-al-Kūrī (قلنسيه وعبد الكوري), with a population of 10,557 and a district seat at Qulansiyah, consists of the minor islands (the island of 'Abd-al-Kūrī chief among them) and the western third of the main island.

Economy[edit]

The primary occupations of the people of Socotra have traditionally been fishing, animal husbandry, and the cultivation of dates.

Monsoons long made the archipelago inaccessible from June to September each year. However, in July 1999, a new airport opened Socotra to the outside world year round. There is regular service to and from Aden and Sana'a. All scheduled commercial flights make a technical stop at Riyan-Mukalla Airport (ICAO code "OYRN"). Socotra Airport ("OYSQ") is located about 12 km (8 mi) west of the main city, Hadibu, and close to the third largest town in the archipelago, Qād̨ub.[33] Diesel generators make electricity widely available in Socotra. A paved road runs along the north shore from Qulansiyah to Hadibu and then to the DiHamri area; and another paved road, from the northern coast to the southern through the Dixsam Plateau.[citation needed]

The former capital is located to the east of Hadibu. A small Yemeni Army barracks lies at the western end of Hadibu, and the former President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, has a residence there.[citation needed]

Some residents raise cattle and goats. The chief export products of the island are dates, ghee, tobacco, and fish.

At the end of the 1990s, a United Nations Development Program was launched with the aim of providing a close survey of the island of Socotra.[34] The project called Socotra Governance and Biodiversity Project have listed following goals from 2009:

  • Local governance support
  • Development and implementation of mainstreaming tools
  • Strengthening nongovernmental organizations' advocacy
  • Direction of biodiversity conservation benefits to the local people
  • Support to the fisheries sector and training of professionals

In February 2014, the Economist magazine reported that Socotra was being considered as a possible site for the Yemeni jihadist rehabilitation program.[35]

Transport[edit]

Public transport on Socotra is limited to a few minibuses; car hire usually means hiring a 4WD car with driver.[36][37]

Transport is a delicate matter on Socotra because, as much as modern transportation has its advantages, road construction has been considered detrimental to the island and its ecosystem. The most harm is being done by chemical pollution from road construction and road provoked habitat fragmentation. [38]

For more eco-friendly alternatives, companies have started offering bicycle[39] and enduro motorcycle tours[40] on Socotra

Ships connect the only Socotra port—5 km (3 mi) east of Hadibu—with the Yemeni coastal city of Al Mukalla. According to information from the ports, the journey takes 2–3 days and the service is used mostly for cargo.

Yemenia and Felix Airways fly from Socotra Airport to Sana'a and Aden via Riyan Airport. The Sana'a service operates daily, while Aden flights are on Mondays, as of December 2009.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Schurhammer, Georg (1982). Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times: India, 1541–1544 2. Jesuit Historical Institute. p. 122. 
  2. ^ "Socotra islands scenery in Yemen". en.youth.cn. China Youth International. 25 April 2008. 
  3. ^ Abrams, Avi (4 September 2008). "The Most Alien-Looking Place on Earth". Dark Roasted Blend. 
  4. ^ Huntingford, George Wynn Brereton (1980). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Hakluyt Society. p. 103. ISBN 0-904180-05-0. 
  5. ^ "Socotra history". DBT Socotra Adventure Tour. 
  6. ^ Amirkhanov, K.A.; Zhukov, V.A.; Naumkin, V.V.; Sedov, A.V. (2009). "Эпоха олдована открыта на острове Сокотра". Pripoda (in Russian) (7). 
  7. ^ Davuov, O. M.; Shunkov, M. V. "Международньій Симлозиум "Древнейшие Миграции Человека В Евразии" Махачкала, 6 – 12 сентября 2009 года". 
  8. ^ Zhukov, Valery A. (2014) The Results of Research of the Stone Age Sites in the Island of Socotra (Yemen) in 2008-2012. - Moscow: Triada Ltd. 2014, pps 114, ill. 134 (in Russian)ISBN 978-5-89282-591-7
  9. ^ Sidebotham, Steven E. (2011). Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route. California. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-520-24430-6. 
  10. ^ "La grotte sanctuaire de Suqutra". Archéologia (in French) (396). January 2003. 
  11. ^ Robin, C.; Gorea, M. (2002). "Les vestiges antiques de la grotte de Hôq (Suqutra, Yémen) (note d'information)". Comptesrendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (in French) 146 (2): 409–445. doi:10.3406/crai.2002.22441. 
  12. ^ Bukharin, Mikhail D.; De Geest, Peter; Dridi, Hédi; Gorea, Maria; Jansen Van Rensburg, Julian; Robin, Christian Julien; Shelat, Bharati; Sims-Williams, Nicholas; Strauch, Ingo (2012). Strauch, Ingo, ed. Foreign Sailors on Socotra. The inscriptions and drawings from the cave Hoq. Bremen: Dr. Ute Hempen Verlag. p. 592. ISBN 978-3-934106-91-8. 
  13. ^ Polo, Marco (1958). The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated and introduction by Ronald Latham. Penguin Books. pp. 296–297. ISBN 0-14-044057-7. 
  14. ^ Monteiro, Alexandre (June 2012). "Uma página dos Descobrimentos: a ilha de Socotorá no século XVI". National Geographic Portugal (in Portuguese): 42–45. 
  15. ^ Diffie, Bailey Wallys; Winius, George Davison (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire, 1415–1580. University of Minnesota Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-8166-0782-6. 
  16. ^ "History of Socotra". Socotra Guide. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Saul, Jonathan (5 July 2011). "Somali pirates use Yemen island as fuel base". Reuters. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  18. ^ "Socotra Archipelago – a lifeboat in the sea of changes: advancement in Socotran insect biodiversity survey" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 52 (supplementum 2): 1–26. 
  19. ^ Shobrak, Mohammed; Alsuhaibany, Abdullah; Al-Sagheir, Omer (November 2003). Photographs by Abdullah Alsuhaibany. "Status of Breeding Seabirds in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden" (PDF). PERSGA Technical Series (in English and Arabic) (Jeddah, Saudia Arabia: Regional Organization for Conservation of Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)) (8). 
  20. ^ "Socotra Fauna and Flora". 
  21. ^ "Socotra High Point, Yemen". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Natural History". DBT Socotra Adventure Tour. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Climate of Socotra". Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia. 
  24. ^ a b FACTBOX-Socotra, jewel of biodiversity in Arabian Sea. Reuters, 2008-04-23
  25. ^ a b Burdick, Alan (25 March 2007). "The Wonder Land of Socotra". T Magazine. New York: New York Times. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c Miller, A.G.; Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of the Socotra Archipelago. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Kingdon, Jonathan (1989). Island Africa: The Evolution of Africa's Rare Plants and Animals. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 38–42. ISBN 0-691-08560-9. 
  28. ^ Bicyclus, Site of Markku Savela
  29. ^ "EU to protect Socotra archipelago environment". Saba Net. Yemen News Agency (SABA). 15 April 2008. 
  30. ^ a b Lockyer, Norman, ed. (1884). "Socotra". Nature 29 (755): 575–576. doi:10.1038/029575b0. 
  31. ^ "Final Census Results2004: The General Frame of the Poplation Final Results (First Report)". The General Population Housing and Establishment Census2004. Central Statistical Organisation. 6 January 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  32. ^ http://www.socotraproject.org/index.php?page=content&id=7
  33. ^ aviationweather.gov
  34. ^ socotraproject.org
  35. ^ "Could Guantánamo’s biggest bunch of prisoners be sent to Socotra?". Hadibu, Socotra: Economist magazine. 2014-02-01. Archived from the original on 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2014-02-03. "In November a Yemeni newspaper, el-Ule, ran a story about a “new Guantánamo” to be set up on Socotra; a cartoon mixed the island’s dragon-blood tree (pictured above) with the Guantánamo inmates’ orange uniform." 
  36. ^ http://www.socotraproject.org/index.php?page=content&id=22
  37. ^ Holmes, Oliver (23 June 2010). "Socotra: The Other Galapagos Awaits Tourists". Time. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  38. ^ Lisa, Banfield. "Past and present human impacts on the biodiversity of Socotra Island - Paper". http://www.friendsofsoqotra.org. 
  39. ^ "Socotra tours". 
  40. ^ Alive, Expedition. "Enduro motorcycles expedition to alien planet". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Agafonov, Vladimir (2006/07). "Temethel as the Brightest Element of Soqotran Folk Poetry". Folia Orientalia. 42/43: 241–249.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Agafonov, Vladimir (2013). Mehazelo – Cinderella of Socotra. ISBN 1482319225. 
  • Biedermann, Zoltán (2006). Soqotra, Geschichte einer christlichen Insel im Indischen Ozean vom Altertum bis zur frühen Neuzeit. Maritime Asia 17 (in German). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05421-8. 
  • Botting, Douglas (2006) [1958]. Island of the Dragon's Blood (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-1-904246-21-3. 
  • Burdick, Alan (25 March 2007). "The Wonder Land of Socotra, Yemen". The New York Times. 
  • Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04060-5. 
  • Cheung, Catherine; DeVantier, Lyndon (2006). Van Damme, Kay, ed. Socotra: A Natural History of the Islands and their People. Odyssey Books & Guides. ISBN 962-217-770-0. 
  • Doe, D. Brian (1970). Field, Henry; Laird, Edith M., eds. Socotra: An Archaeological Reconnaissance in 1967. Miami: Field Research Projects. 
  • Doe, D. Brian (1992). Socotra: Island of Tranquility. London: Immel. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2004). "Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City". Chroniques Yemenites 12. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (November 2006). "Soqotra: South Arabia's Strategic Gateway and Symbolic Playground". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 33 (2): 131–160. doi:10.1080/13530190600953278. ISSN 1353-0194. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (June 2007). The Waning of a Pastoralist Community: An Ethnographic Exploration of Soqotra as a Transitional Social Formation (D.Phil Dissertation thesis). University of Sussex. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2008). "The Waning of Soqotra's Pastoral Community: Political Incorporation as Social Transformation". Human Organization 67 (3): 335–345. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2009). "State-Community Relations in Yemen: Soqotra's Historical Formation as a Sub-National Polity". History and Anthropology 20 (4): 363–393. doi:10.1080/02757200903166459. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2010). "Soqotra: The Historical Formation of a Communal Polity". Chroniques Yéménites 16: 31–55. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2012). "Fieldwork in Soqotra: The Formation of a Practitioner's Sensibility". Practicing Anthropology 34 (2): 30–34. 
  • Elie, Serge D. (2012). "Cultural Accommodation to State Incorporation: Language Replacement on Soqotra Island". Journal of Arabian Studies 2 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1080/21534764.2012.686235. 
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004) Ethnoflora of the Socotra Archipelago. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Naumkin, V. V.; Sedov, A. V. (1993). "Monuments of Socotra". In Boussac, Marie-Françoise; and Salles, Jean-François. Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the interrelations between India, Arabia and the Eastern Mediterranean. Delhi: Manohar. pp. 193–250. ISBN 81-7304-079-6. 
  • Schoff, Wilfred H. (1974) [1912]. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (2nd. ed.). New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 
  • Zhukov, Valery A. (2014). The Results of Research of the Stone Age Sites in the Island of Socotra (Yemen) in 2008-2012 (in Russian). Moscow: Triada. ISBN 978-5-89282-591-7. 

External links[edit]