Soda-lime glass

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Reusable soda-lime glass milk bottles
Old window made from soda-lime flat glass, Jena, Germany. The distorted reflections of a tree indicates that the flat glass was possibly not made by the float glass process.

Soda-lime glass, also called soda-lime-silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes, and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items. Glass bakeware is often made of tempered soda-lime glass.[1] Soda-lime glass accounts for about 90% of manufactured glass.

Soda-lime glass is relatively inexpensive, chemically stable, reasonably hard, and extremely workable. Because it is capable of being re-softened and re-melted numerous times, it is ideal for glass recycling.[2]

Soda-lime glass is prepared by melting the raw materials, such as sodium carbonate (soda), lime, dolomite, silicon dioxide (silica), aluminium oxide (alumina), and small quantities of fining agents (e.g., sodium sulfate, sodium chloride) in a glass furnace at temperatures locally up to 1675 °C.[3] The temperature is only limited by the quality of the furnace superstructure material and by the glass composition. Relatively inexpensive minerals such as trona, sand, and feldspar are usually used instead of pure chemicals. Green and brown bottles are obtained from raw materials containing iron oxide. The mix of raw materials is termed batch.

Soda-lime glass is divided technically into glass used for windows, called flat glass, and glass for containers, called container glass. The two types differ in the application, production method (float process for windows, blowing and pressing for containers), and chemical composition. Flat glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide, and aluminium oxide content.[4] From the lower content of highly water soluble ions (sodium and magnesium) in container glass comes its slightly higher chemical durability against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food.

Typical compositions and properties[edit]

The following table lists some physical properties of soda-lime glasses. Unless otherwise stated, the glass compositions and many experimentally determined properties are taken from one large study.[4] Those values marked in italic font have been interpolated from similar glass compositions (see calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data.

Properties Soda-lime glass
for containers
Soda-lime glass
for windows
Chemical
composition,
wt%
74 SiO2, 13 Na2O,
10.5 CaO, 1.3 Al2O3,
0.3 K2O, 0.2 SO3,
0.2 MgO, 0.04 Fe2O3,
0.01 TiO2
73 SiO2, 14 Na2O,
9 CaO, 4 MgO,
0.15 Al2O3, 0.03 K2O,
0.02 TiO2, 0.1 Fe2O3
Viscosity
log(η, dPa·s or Poise) = A +
B / (T in °C − To)
550 °C (1,022 °F)–1,450 °C (2,640 °F):
A = −2.309
B = 3922
To = 291
550 °C (1,022 °F)–1,450 °C (2,640 °F):
A = −2.585
B = 4215
To = 263
Glass transition
temperature, Tg
573 °C (1,063 °F) 564 °C (1,047 °F)
Coefficient of
thermal expansion,
ppm/K, ~100 °C (212 °F)–300 °C (572 °F)
9 9.5
Density
at 20 °C (68 °F), g/cm3
2.52 2.53
Refractive index
nD at 20 °C (68 °F)
1.518 1.520
Dispersion at 20 °C (68 °F),
104×(nF−nC)
86.7 87.7
Young's modulus
at 20 °C (68 °F), GPa
72 74
Shear modulus
at 20 °C (68 °F), GPa
29.8 29.8
Liquidus
temperature
1,040 °C (1,900 °F) 1,000 °C (1,830 °F)
Heat
capacity at 20 °C (68 °F),
J/(mol·K)
49 48
Surface tension,
at ~1,300 °C (2,370 °F), mJ/m2
315
Chemical durability,
Hydrolytic class,
after ISO 719[5]
3 3...4
Critical stress
intensity factor,[6]
(KIC), MPa.m0.5
? 0.75
Typical transmission spectrum of a 2 mm glass.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pyrex Manufacturing History". World Kitchen Inc. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  2. ^ "Calcium Carbonate - Glass Manufacturing". congcal.com. congcal. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  3. ^ B. H. W. S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, ISBN 3-527-20112-2, p 365-432.
  4. ^ a b "High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling"; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7
  5. ^ International Organization for Standardization, Procedure 719 (1985)
  6. ^ Wiederhorn, S.M. (1969). "Fracture stress energy of glass". Journal of the American Ceramic Society 52 (2): 99–105. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1969.tb13350.x. 
  7. ^ "Sodalime Optical Glass – Internal transmittance (2 mm)". vpglass.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  8. ^ Gondret, P.; M. Lance and L. Petit (2002). "Bouncing Motion of Spherical Particles in Fluids". Physics of Fluids 14 (2): 643–652. doi:10.1063/1.1427920. 
  9. ^ Janssen, L.P.B.M., Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G., 2006. Transport phenomena data companion. Delft: VVSD.
  10. ^ Material Properties Data: Soda-Lime Glass