|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||39.01 g mol-1|
|Density||1.39 g cm-3|
|Melting point||210 °C (410 °F; 483 K)|
|Boiling point||400 °C (752 °F; 673 K)|
|Solubility in water||reacts|
|Solubility||0.004 g/100 mL (liquid ammonia), reacts in ethanol|
|Acidity (pKa)||38 (conjugate acid) |
heat capacity C
|66.15 J/mol K|
|76.9 J/mol K|
|Std enthalpy of
|Gibbs free energy ΔG||-59 kJ/mol|
|EU Index||Not listed|
|Flash point||4.44 °C (39.99 °F; 277.59 K)|
|Other anions||Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide|
|Other cations||Potassium amide|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Sodium amide, commonly called sodamide, is the chemical compound with the formula NaNH2. This solid, which is dangerously reactive toward water, is white when pure, but commercial samples are typically gray due to the presence of small quantities of metallic iron from the manufacturing process. Such impurities do not usually affect the utility of the reagent. NaNH2 conducts electricity in the fused state, its conductance being similar to that of NaOH in a similar state. NaNH2 has been widely employed as a strong base in organic synthesis.
Preparation and structure
Sodium amide can be prepared by the reaction of sodium with ammonia gas, but it is usually prepared by the reaction in liquid ammonia using iron(III) nitrate as a catalyst. The reaction is fastest at the boiling point of the ammonia, c. −33 °C. An electride, [Na(NH3)6]+e-, is formed as an intermediate.
- 2 Na + 2 NH3 → 2 NaNH2 + H2
NaNH2 is a salt-like material and as such, crystallizes as an infinite polymer. The geometry about sodium is tetrahedral. In ammonia, NaNH2 forms conductive solutions, consistent with the presence of Na(NH3)6+ and NH2- anions.
Sodium amide is used in the industrial production of indigo, hydrazine, and sodium cyanide. It is the reagent of choice for the drying of ammonia (liquid or gaseous) and is widely used as a strong base in organic chemistry, often in liquid ammonia solution. One of the main advantages to the use of sodamide is that it is an excellent base and rarely serves as a nucleophile. It is however poorly soluble in solvents other than ammonia, and its use has been superseded by the related reagents sodium hydride, sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (NaHMDS), and lithium diisopropylamide (LDA).
Preparation of Alkynes
Sodium amide induces the loss of two molecules of hydrogen bromide from a vicinal dibromoalkane to give a carbon-carbon triple bond, as in a preparation of phenylacetylene. Usually two equivalents of sodium amide yields the desired alkyne, however three equivalents are necessary in the preparation of a terminal alkyne. This is because as the terminal alkyne forms, its acidic terminal hydrogen immediately protonates an equivalent amount of base.
Deprotonation of carbon and nitrogen acids
Carbon acids which can be deprotonated by sodium amide in liquid ammonia include terminal alkynes, methyl ketones, cyclohexanone, phenylacetic acid and its derivatives and diphenylmethane. Acetylacetone loses two protons to form a dianion.
- Rearrangement with orthodeprotonation
- Oxirane synthesis
- Indole synthesis
- Chichibabin reaction
- NaNH2 + H2O → NH3 + NaOH
- 2 NaNH2 + 4 O2 → Na2O + 2 NO2 + 2 H2O
In the presence of limited quantities of air and moisture, such as in a poorly closed container, explosive mixtures of peroxides may form. This is accompanied by a yellowing or browning of the solid. As such, sodium amide should always be stored in a tightly closed container, under an atmosphere of nitrogen gas. Sodium amide samples which are yellow or brown in color should be dealt with immediately. These containers should not be handled and proper safety authorities should be notified.
Sodium amide may be expected to be corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Care should be taken to avoid dispersal of the dust.
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- "Sodium Amide". Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2011-07-20.