|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||213.8918 g/mol|
|Density||3.865 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
|Melting point||300 °C (anhydrous)
175 °C (trihydrate) (decomp)
|Solubility in water||soluble|
|Solubility||soluble in acids|
|Crystal structure||tetragonal (anhydrous)
|Other anions||sodium perchlorate, sodium perbromate|
|Other cations||potassium periodate, periodic acid|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Sodium periodate is an inorganic salt, composed of a sodium cation and the periodate anion. It may also be regarded as the sodium salt of periodic acid. Like all periodates it can can exist in two different forms: sodium metaperiodate, which has the formula NaIO4, and sodium orthoperiodate (IUPAC: sodium hydrogen periodate), which has the formula Na2H3IO6. Both salts are useful oxidising agents.
Classically, periodate was most commonly produced in the form of sodium hydrogen periodate (Na3H2IO6). This is commercially available, but can also be produced by the oxidation of iodates with chlorine and sodium hydroxide. Or, similarly, from iodides by oxidation with bromine and sodium hydroxide:
- NaIO3 + Cl2 + 4 NaOH → Na3H2IO6 + 2 NaCl + H2O
- NaI + 4 Br2 + 10 NaOH → Na3H2IO6 + 8 NaBr + 4 H2O
- Na3H2IO6 + 2 HNO3 → NaIO4 + 2 NaNO3 + 2 H2O
Sodium periodate can be used in solution to open saccharide rings between vicinal diols leaving two aldehyde groups. This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin. Because the process requires vicinal diols, periodate oxidation is often used to selectively label the 3'-termini of RNA (ribose has vicinal diols) instead of DNA as deoxyribose does not have vicinal diols.
- Andrew G. Wee, Jason Slobodian, Manuel A. Fernández-Rodríguez and Enrique Aguilar "Sodium Periodate" e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2006. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rs095.pub2
- Riley, edited by Georg Brauer ; translated by Scripta Technica, Inc. Translation editor Reed F. (1963). Handbook of preparative inorganic chemistry. Volume 1 (2nd ed. ed.). New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. p. 323 - 324. ISBN 012126601X.
- Hill, Arthur E. (October 1928). "TERNARY SYSTEMS. VII. THE PERIODATES OF THE ALKALI METALS". Journal of the American Chemical Society 50 (10): 2678–2692. doi:10.1021/ja01397a013.
- Parsons, Roger (1959). Handbook of electrochemical constants. Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd. p. 71.
- McMurry, John. Organic chemistry (8th ed., [international ed.] ed.). Singapore: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. pp. 285 – 286. ISBN 9780840054531.
- "Picatinny to remove tons of toxins from lethal rounds". U.S. Army. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- See Fatiadi, Synthesis (1974)229-272 for a review of periodate chemistry.
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