Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)|
|Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta
|Soekarno Hatta Airport Terminal 3|
|IATA: CGK – ICAO: WIII|
|Owner||Government of Indonesia|
|Operator||PT Angkasa Pura II|
|Location||Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia|
|Focus city for||Citilink|
|Elevation AMSL||32 ft / 10 m|
|Java Island, Indonesia|
|Cargo (metric tonnes)||342,473|
|Economic & Social impact||$5.1 billion & 705 thousand|
|Source: Passenger and Aircraft Movements from ACI
Cargo from Angkara Pura II Airports Company
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII), abbreviated SHIA, is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia, along with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. The airport is named after the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from Cengkareng, a district northwest of the city, and it is often called Cengkareng Airport by Indonesians, although the airport is administratively located within Tangerang.
Although it primarily serves Jakarta, it is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of the capital city, in Tangerang in the neighboring province of Banten. Soekarno–Hatta Airport began operations in 1985, replacing the former Kemayoran Airport (for domestic flights) in Central Jakarta, and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport in East Jakarta. Kemayoran Airport has since been made into public areas. Halim Perdanakusuma is still operating, serving hajj flight, VVIP, charters and military flights and since January 2014 is reactivated for domestic schedule commercial flights to ease Cengkareng Airport. Terminal 2 opened in 1991 and Terminal 3 opened in 2009. In 2010, total passengers reached 43.7 million, surpassing the 38-million-passenger capacity of all 3 terminals. In 2012, the airport was the 9th busiest airport in the world with 57.8 million passengers, a 12.1% increase over 2011. And in May 2014, becomes the 8th busiest airport in the world with 62.1 million passengers. It is also the busiest airport in the Southern Hemisphere.
Although the airport is running over capacity, on May 4, 2012, after verification from April 23 to May 3, the Airport Council International (ACI) stated that Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is clearly being operated safely. To overcome the overcapacity, on August 2, 2012, ground was broken at terminal 3 to make it into an Aerotropolis airport which can serve 62 million passengers per year. This is predicted to be complete by the end of 2014. A third, 3,660-by-60-metre (12,010 ft × 200 ft), runway is planned to be built in 2015, costing 4 trillion rupiah.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Traffic and statistics
- 5 Airport facilities
- 6 Ground transportation
- 7 Picture gallery
- 8 Accidents & Incidents
- 9 Award
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Used between 1928 and 1985, Kemayoran Airfield was considered unsatisfactory[when?] because it was too close to the major Halim Perdanakusuma Indonesian military airport. The civil airspace in the area became increasingly restricted, while air traffic increased rapidly, posing problems for international air traffic. In 1969, a senior communication officers meeting in Bangkok expressed these concerns.
In the early 1970s, with the help of USAID, eight potential locations were analyzed for a new international airport, namely Kemayoran, Malaka, Babakan, Jonggol, Halim, Curug, South Tangerang and North Tangerang. Finally, the North Tangerang site was chosen; it was also noted that Jonggol could be used as an alternative airfield. Meanwhile, as an interim step, the Indonesian government upgraded the Halim Perdanakusumah airfield for use for passenger services. The old Kemayoran site was closed in 1985, and the land was later used for commercial and housing purposes.
Between 1974 and 1975, a Canadian consultant/consortium, consisting of Aviation Planning Services Ltd., ACRESS International Ltd., and Searle Wilbee Rowland (SWR), won a bid for the new airport feasibility project. The feasibility study started on 20 February 1974, with a total cost of 1 million Canadian dollars. The one-year project proceeded with an Indonesian partner represented by PT Konavi. By the end of March 1975, the study revealed a plan to build three inline runways, three international terminal buildings, three domestic buildings and one building for Hajj flights. Three stores for the domestic terminals would be built between 1975 and 1981 at a cost of US$ 465 million and one domestic terminal including an apron from 1982–1985 at a cost of US$ 126 million. A new terminal project, named the Jakarta International Airport Cengkareng, began.
The airport's terminal 1 and 2 was designed by Paul Andreu, a French architect who also designed Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. One of the characteristics of the airport is the incorporation of the local architecture into the design, and the presence of tropical gardens between the waiting lounges. These unique characteristics earned the airport the 1995 Aga Khan Award for Architecture. The runways run northeast-southwest. There are two parallel runways, on the north and south side. The airport terminal took the plan of spanning fan, with the main entrances of terminals connected to a series of waiting and boarding pavilions via corridors. These waiting and boarding pavilions are connected to the airplanes through boarding bridges. Terminal 1 is in the southern side of the airport, while Terminal 2 and 3 are on the north side.
The airport concept is described as "garden within the airport" or "airport in the garden", as tropical decorative and flower plants fill the spaces between corridors, waiting and boarding pavilions. The boarding pavilions demonstrate local Indonesian vernacular architecture, particularly the roof, in the Javanese stepped-roof pendopo/joglo style. The interior design displays the diversity of Indonesian art and culture, with ethnic decorative elements taken from wooden carvings of Java, Bali, Sumatra, Dayak, Toraja to Papua. Another example is the railings of stairs, doors and gates, which show the kala-makara (giant head and mythical fish-elephant creature) theme typical in ancient Indonesian temples such as Borobudur. Terminal 3, however, has a different architectural style—unlike the ethnic-inspired Indonesian vernacular architecture of terminal 1 and 2, terminal 3 uses the contemporary modern style of large glass windows with metal frames and columns.
||This section appears to contradict itself about centralized versus decentralized. (May 2014)|
To allocate the land and also determine the provincial border,[clarification needed] time was needed. Authorities at Amsterdam Schiphol airport were consulted about the airport plans, and concluded that the proposal was rather expensive and over-designed. The cost rose because of using a decentralized system. The centralized system was seen as a more suitable option.
On 12 November 1976, the building project tender was won by the French Aeroport de Paris.
On 18 May 1977, the final design was agreed on by the Indonesian government and Aeroport de Paris with a fixed cost of about 22,323,203 French francs and Rp. 177,156,000 equivalent to 2,100,000 francs. The work was scheduled to take 18 months. The government appointed PT. Konavi as the local partner. The plan included 2 runways with taxiways, one access road in the east and one in the west (closed to public use) for airport services, 3 terminals capable of accommodating 3 million passengers per year, and 1 module for international flights and 2 for domestic. "An airport inside a garden" was chosen as the design idea.
On 20 May 1980, a four year contract was signed. Sainraptet Brice, SAE, Colas together with PT. Waskita Karya were chosen to be the developers. Ir. Karno Barkah MSc. was appointed the project director, responsible for the airport's construction.
On 1 December 1980, the Indonesian government signed a contract for Rp. 384.8 billion with developers. The cost structure was: Rp. 140,450,513,000 from the state budget, 1,223,457 francs donated by France and US$ 15,898,251 from the USA.
On 1 December 1984, the airport structure was completed.
The new airport opened on 1 May 1985 for domestic flights.
The second circular terminal was opened on 1 May 1991 for international operations.
|Phases of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport Project|
|Phase 1||1985||Opening of Terminal 1 with a capacity of 9 million passengers per annum||Completed|
|Phase 2||1991||Opening of Terminal 2 with a capacity of 18 million passengers per annum||Completed|
|Phase 3||2008||Construction of Terminal 3 phase 1 with a capacity of 22 million passengers per annum||Completed|
|2013||Completion of Terminal 3 with a capacity of 43 million passengers per annum||In progress|
|Refurbishing of Terminal 2 to increase capacity to 53 million passengers per annum||In progress|
|Fully built new Freight Terminal||Pending|
|Fully built integrated building[clarification needed]||In Progress|
|Construction of Terminal 4||Pending|
|2014||Refurbishment of Terminal 1 to increase capacity to 62 million passengers per annum||Pending|
In the newest masterplan, the capacity of the airport is to be increased from 22 million passengers per annum to 62 million per annum in 2014. The airport will use new theme "Modern Airport With Traditional Sense" for the project. Angkasa Pura II, as the operator, designed Soekarno-Hatta Airport to have 3 passenger terminals, 1 new freight terminal (cargo village) and an integrated building[clarification needed] in 2014. Also, there will be an increase in apron capacity from 125 airplanes to 174 airplanes. By 2015, additional upgrades are expected to increase the airport's capacity to 75 million passengers. An airport train from Manggarai Station and a people mover for ground transportation to/from and inside the airport are also in planning.
Angkasa Pura II will spend Rp.11.7 trillion ($1.36 billion) to change the airport into a 'world class' airport which will be called 'aerotropolis', by 2014. In the first stage, Terminal 3 will be expanded and thereafter Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 will be integrated with green walls[clarification needed] and the airport will have a convention hall, shopping center, hotel, playground, recreational facilities and parking area for 20,000 vehicles.
To anticipate a surge in passenger numbers, at least a ten percent increase each year, the government is preparing to build a third runway. This was planned to be completed in 2017. If the airport has 3 runways, the service capacity will rise to 623,420 movements per year and it will be able to anticipate growth at least until 2030. The expansion will use about 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) from 10 villages in the Teluk Naga and Kosambi subdistricts. The expansion plan has been rejected by Tangerang Municipal Government because the residents living around the airport wouldn't be able to earn income for their family. The local government offered another location such as in Balaraja, but Angkasa Pura II corporate secretary said that building a new airport would not be an easy task, as it requires a thorough study.
Due to lack of space to make the third runway at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, the government plans to build a new airport around Cikarang and Karawang. The airport would be integrated with the planned Cilamaya International Seaport in Karawang.
The land area of the airport is 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi). It has two independent parallel 3,600-metre (11,800 ft) long runways connected by two cross taxiways. There are three main terminal buildings; Terminal 1 (domestic flights only), Terminal 2 (international flights and Garuda Airlines domestic flights) and Terminal 3, Pier 1 (Air Asia international and domestic flights). There is also a freight terminal for domestic and international cargo.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport has 180 check-in counters, 36 baggage carousels and 45 gates. The sub-terminals (1A, 1B, 1C, 2D, 2E, and 2F) have 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates each. Terminal 3 has 30 check-in counters, 6 baggage carousels and 3 gates.
Terminal 1 is the first terminal built, finished in 1985. It is located on the south side of the airport, across from Terminal 2. Terminal 1 has 3 sub-terminals, each equipped with 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates. It has the capacity to handle 9 million passengers per annum. The gates in Terminal 1 have a prefix of A, B or C. The gates are A1-A7, B1-B7 and C1-C7. In the newest masterplan, Terminal 1 will have its capacity increased to 18 million passengers per annum. Terminal 1 is used for domestic flights except for those operated by Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines.
Terminal 2 is the second terminal built, finished in 1991. It is located on the northern side of the airport, across from Terminal 1. It operates international flights and Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines domestic flights. This terminal has 3 sub-terminals. Each sub-terminal has 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates. It can handle 9 million passengers per annum. The gates in Terminal 2 are prefixed D, E and F. The gates are D1-D7, E1-E7 and F1-F7. In the newest masterplan, Terminal 2's capacity will be expanded to 19 million passengers per annum.
On November 28, 2011, Garuda Indonesia and Angkasa Pura II made a memorandum of understanding regarding the management of Terminals 2E and 2F, which will be used solely by Garuda Indonesia to anticipate ASEAN Open Sky Policy in 2015. Terminal 2E will be used for international travel and Terminal 2F for domestic flights. Garuda Indonesia said that it will share the use of its international terminal with other Sky Team members when Garuda Indonesia joins in early 2013. Predicted domestic transfer times are around 30 minutes for domestic and 45 minutes for international passengers. Currently Sky Team has 20 members, but not all of them fly to Indonesia.
This terminal is used for International airlines such as Air China, All Nippon Airways, Asiana Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Cebu Pacific. China Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Emirates, Etihad, Eva Air, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Airways, KLM, Korean Air, Kuwait Airways, Lufthansa, Malaysia Airlines, Malindo Air, Mihin Lanka, Philippine Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Saudia, Sichuan Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways International, Thai Lion Air, Turkish Airlines, Valuair, Vietnam Airlines, Xiamen Airlines and Yemenia.
The first phase of terminal 3, located on the eastern side of the airport, consisting of the first of the two planned piers, opened on April 15, 2009. The terminal has a different style than terminals 1 and 2, using an eco-friendy modern design. It currently houses the Air Asia Group, Lion Air and Mandala Airlines. With a capacity of 4 million passengers per annum, terminal 3 has 30 check in counters, 6 baggage carousels and 3 gates with two jet bridges. In the newest masterplan, Terminal 3 will be designed in a U-shape with a total capacity of 25 million passengers per annum and an area of 354,000 square metres (3,810,000 sq ft), compared to the current 34,000-square-metre (370,000 sq ft) area, and will have A380-capable gates.
The freight terminal is located on the east side of terminal 1. This terminal was used to handle cargo at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, both domestic and international cargo. In the newest masterplan, the freight terminal will move to the west side of terminal 2 and have a larger capacity than the current terminal.
Airlines and destinations
- ^2 : Turkish Airlines flies via Singapore. However, Turkish Airlines doesn't have rights to transport passengers solely between Jakarta and Singapore.
- ^3 : Yemenia flies via Kuala Lumpur and Dubai. However, Yemenia doesn't have rights to transport passengers solely between Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, and Dubai.
Traffic and statistics
New traffic procedure
To ease congestion, the airport authority implemented a new traffic procedure, the 72 Improved Runway Capacity (IRC 72), to handle 72 planes per hour. This limited a plane to 30–45 minutes only for arrival and unloading of passengers, to allow other planes to use the parking space. Gradually it has been implemented and on June 26, 2014 IRC 72 has been implemented full for the period of 00:00am to 01:30am, 02:00am to 10:00am and 11:30pm to 00:00am with occupancy periods for aircraft are reduced from 110 seconds to 90 seconds of takeoff and from 65 seconds to 50 seconds for landing. The low time is from 04:00pm to 10:00pm with only maximum 32 flights/hour. By 2015, IRC 72 will become IRC 86 with the opening of the new terminal. As a comparison, London Heathrow Airport, which has 2 runways like SHIA, can handle 100 flights per hour, so the target for SHIA has been revised to 92 flights per hour by 2015.
Busiest international routes
|3,410,676||Air France, Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, Lion Air, Singapore Airlines, Sriwijaya Air, Tigerair, Tigerair Mandala, Turkish Airlines, Valuair|
|1,843,397||AirAsia, Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, KLM, Kuwait Airways, Lion Air, Malaysia Airlines, Tigerair Mandala, Yemenia|
|897,302||Garuda Indonesia, Thai Airways International, Tigerair Mandala|
|850,500||Cathay Pacific, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Tigerair Mandala|
|788,099||Garuda Indonesia, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines|
|760,722||All Nippon Airways, Garuda Indonesia, Japan Airlines|
|7||People's Republic of China
|611,653||Air China, Garuda Indonesia|
|609,202||Garuda Indonesia, KLM|
|9||United Arab Emirates
|577,314||Etihad Airways, Garuda Indonesia|
|557,778||China Airlines, EVA Air, Garuda Indonesia|
|11||United Arab Emirates
|509,514||Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines|
|508,653||Garuda Indonesia, Jetstar|
|500,149||Garuda Indonesia, Qantas, Jetstar|
Ho Chi Minh City-Tan Son Nhat
|487,500||Lion Air, Vietnam Airlines|
|17||People's Republic of China
|19||People's Republic of China
|387,653||China Southern Airlines, Garuda Indonesia|
|286,202||Garuda Indonesia, Lion Air, Saudia|
Terminal 1 and 2 was designed to resemble a traditional Rumah Joglo Javanese house. The approach has been emphasized by the inclusion of well-maintained gardens located near all boarding areas. Terminal 3 and other new airport buildings use an eco-friendly and modern design.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
Maintenance facilities for aircraft in Soekarno–Hatta International Airport are supported by GMF AeroAsia (Garuda Maintenance Facility). They include 480,000 square metres (5,200,000 sq ft) of built-up structures, including three hangars, a spares warehouse, workshops, utility buildings, a ground support equipment building, chemical stores, an engine test cell, and management offices. In addition, GMF AeroAsia has an apron capable of handling up to 50 aircraft, taxiways, a run-up bay and a waste treatment area, taking up 1,150,000 square metres (12,400,000 sq ft).
Hangar 1 was built in 1991 and was designed for Boeing 747s. It has two full docks and is 22,000 square metres (240,000 sq ft). Hangar 2 is 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft) and has 3 aircraft bays. It can perform minor A and B checks. It can hold up to one narrow body and one wide body jet. Hangar 3 is also 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft). It normally holds up to 3 narrow body aircraft, but can be configured to hold up to one wide body and one narrow body. It has 7 bays with 4 full docks, 6 roof-mounted cranes and one bay designed for MD11s, DC10s, and wide body Airbus aircraft.
There is a golf course at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport supported by the Cengkareng Golf Club. The golf course has been open since 1999. It is located on the left side of the airport main gate by the Sheraton Bandara Hotel. The Cengkareng Golf Club is in the 102-hectare (250-acre) Soewarna Business Park at Soekarno Hatta International Airport. In 2005 and 2008, this golf course was used for Indonesia Open, a part of the PGA European Tour. There are 18 holes in the golf course.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport has two hotels, the Sheraton Airport Hotel and the Jakarta Airport Hotel. The Sheraton Airport Hotel, which is located on the left side of the main exit road from the airport, has 4 floors with 220 guest rooms. The Jakarta Airport Hotel is located on the upper floor of Terminal 2 and provides useful standard accommodation for airport transit accommodation. The hotel entrance is located at the meeting point (midpoint) of terminal 2E. This hotel has 82 guest rooms. As of December 2013, the Jakarta Airport Hotel is closed with no date for reopening.
||This section appears to contradict itself about the number of lounges. (May 2014)|
There are four airport lounges in the departure area. The Jasa Angkasa Semesta (JAS) Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Cathay Pacific, Qantas, EVA Air, Saudia, and Singapore Airlines. The Pura Indah Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Singapore Airlines, KLM, Malaysia Airlines, Emirates Airline, Cathay Pacific, and China Airlines. The new Garuda Indonesia lounge is available for their business class passengers only, as well as GECC[clarification needed] cardholders. Other lounges are available, operated by companies such as Indosat, PT Mandara Jasindo Sena, Telkomsel, and XL Axiata.
There are shopping areas available in all terminals at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. Duty-free shops, souvenir shops, restaurants and a cafeteria can be found there. There is a new "Shopping Arcade" located in terminal 1C. There are no shops in the arrival zones of the terminals.
There was a great deal of controversy surrounding certain shops (such as Crown Toko Hasil Laut Marine Products Shop) which sell shark fins and other unethically sourced marine products. In response, PT Angkasa Pura II banned the sale of shark fins from the airport.
21 reading corners are located in the waiting rooms of Terminal 2D, 2E and 2F.
Since November 2013, Terminal 2 has free WiFi covering the whole terminal. Free WiFi for Terminal 1 is being installed and its expected to be ready for service in Q2 2014.
The airport contains the head office of Garuda Indonesia, Garuda Indonesia Management Building, located within the Garuda Indonesia City Center. Angkasa Pura II's head office is on the airport property.
There are several transport options available for access to the airport: local airport terminal shuttles, buses, taxi services of various kinds, and cars.
Inter-terminal shuttle transportation
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport provides a free shuttle bus which connects Terminals 1, 2 and 3.
Inter-terminal rail transportation
In 2013, the Indonesian government announced that it will build a people mover to connect Terminals 1, 2, and 3. Construction for the people mover will start in 2013, and it will be open to public in 2015.
Several bus companies provide services to various destinations from the airport. Currently the airport is served by 4 bus operators, Damri, Primajasa, Cipaganti and X-Trans Shuttle. Travel time to and from the centre of Jakarta (at the Gambir railway station) takes around 70 minutes, depending on traffic. Buses to the airport leave from the various terminals in central Jakarta (Gambir) and surrounding areas.
Taxis and other services
Various taxi and shuttle services are provided by several operators.
The airport is connected to Jakarta's city center via the Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road. There is extensive car parking, including long-stay facilities, at the airport.
In July 2011, the government has assigned PT Kereta Api to establish a railway that connect the Manggarai Station to the Airport via Tangerang, which would cost Rp.2.25 trillion ($250 million). A 7-kilometre (4.3 mi) section of track will be built to connect the KRL Jabotabek station in Tangerang and the airport. The existing single-track commuter line between Manggarai and Tanah Tinggi will be dual-tracked. The commuter line will connect Manggarai station, Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Duri, Grogol, Bojong Indah, Kalideres, Tanah Tinggi and Soekarno Hatta International Airport. It is expected to operate in early 2014. In March 2012, the government decided to speed up the construction of the line, which they predicted would commence operations in the middle of 2013. PT KAI is studying the entry point at the airport,[when?] whether the train will enter behind the airport through its M1 gate or will run side by side with the Jakarta Outer Ring Road corridor before entering the airport.
The government also is planning a 33-kilometre (21 mi) express line between the Manggarai station and the airport via Angke and Pluit to be built by an investor as a public-private partnership. To realize the demand from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, the route has been extended from Manggarai to Halim and the new route has been agreed upon by the Transportation Ministry Regulation. The express train will take 30 minutes to connect the airports.
Accidents & Incidents
- On October 28, 1997, a Trigana Air Service Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000 passenger plane returned to land at Jakarta-Soekarno–Hatta International Airport after the aircraft experienced technical problems two minutes after takeoff. Smoke and severe heat had entered cockpit and the passenger cabin. The airplane sustained damage due to the heat.
- On December 19, 1997, a SilkAir Boeing 737-300 operating Flight 185, piloted by Captain Tsu Way Ming, crashed into the Musi River in Sumatra during a routine flight from Jakarta to Singapore, killing all 104 people on board. The Indonesian NTSC, who were the lead investigators, stated that they were unable to determine the cause, while the U.S. NTSB concluded that the crash resulted from an intentional act by a pilot, most likely the captain.
- On January 23, 2003, a Star Air Boeing 737 touched down 500 metres (1,600 ft) past the threshold of runway 25L, a little left of the centreline, at a time of heavy rainfall with associated heavy winds. It went off the side of the runway, causing substantial damage to the aircraft's undercarriage and belly.
- On August 11, 2003, a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000R suffered a left main gear collapse after a flight from Surabaya.
- On March 9, 2009, a Lion Air MD-90 overran runway 25L, due to an unstable approach 100 metres (330 ft) before the runway in rainfall and strong winds, in which the aircraft touched down to the left of the centerline. Although its thrust reversers were functioning, it veered to the right, resulting in the aircraft resting 90 degrees off the runway.
- "Soekarno–Hatta International airport - Economic and social impacts". Ecquants. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- 2012 Passenger Traffic (Preliminary)
- angkasapura2.co.id - Statistics
- Bandara Soekarno-Hatta Raih Dua Penghargaan
- "Soekarno-Hatta must be expanded to meet passenger demand." The Jakarta Post. Wednesday 1 September 2010. Retrieved on 16 September 2010. "In this August, 2010 file photo passengers crowd the domestic terminal at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, Banten." and "Starting operation in 1985, Soekarno-Hatta airport replaced Kemayoran airport in Central Jakarta and Halim Perdanakusuma airport in East Jakarta"
- "IATA sees strong growth in Indonesia". September 23, 2011.
- "More Flights for Soekarno-Hatta Airport". May 22, 2014.
- "ACI: Soekarno-Hatta Aman dan Laik Operasi". May 4, 2012.
- "Yudhoyono leads ground breaking ceremony in Soekarno-Hatta Airport". August 2, 2012.
- Riwayat Penerbangan Cengkareng
- Aga Khan Award for Architecture - The Sixth Award Cycle, 1993-1995
- Apa dan Siapa - KARNO BARKAH
- "Major Upgrade for Jakarta Airport". Airport International. July 23, 2012.
- "Bandara Soeta Butuh Investasi Rp11,7 Triliun". February 10, 2012.
- "Govt to build new airport in to ease load on Soekarno-Hatta". October 24, 2011.
- "Garuda Participate in Managing the Airport Terminal 2E and 2F Soetta". November 28, 2011.
- "Garuda Gunakan Terminal 2E-2F Bersama Sky Team". November 29, 2011.
- "Terminal III Soetta Bakal Berkonsep Eco Airport". March 18, 2013.
- "In Jakarta AirAsia Routes All Flights to Terminal 3". November 16, 2011.
- "2014 Summer Flight Schedule: Changes to International Routes, ANA expands network at Haneda Airport, New services to Vancouver and Hanoi" (Press release). All Nippon Airways. December 9, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Garuda postpones London Launch". ATW Online. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "Malindo Air to Start Indonesia Operation from late-September 2013". Airline Route. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "Xiamen Airlines accelerates the development of the airline network in Southeast Asia" (Press release). Xiamen Airlines.
- "Expand Freighter Network from May 14th, 2014". ANA Cargo. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Soekarno-Hatta Airport Increases Runway Capacity". June 26, 2014.
- Maria Yuniar (February 21, 2014). "http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2014/02/21/056556275/Air-Traffic-Procedures-Restructured".
- Ananda Putri (April 25, 2014). "Soekarno-Hatta Airport Ready to Serve 72 Flights per Hour".
- Fiscal year 1 July – 30 June
- "Australian International Airline Activity" (PDF). Aviation Statistics. Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics. October 2011. pp. 31–32. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- 'Rumah Joglo' (Joglo House) reflects traditional Javanese Kraton (court) Indonesian architecture
- Shark fin petition for Soekarno Hatta International Airport.
- The Jakarta Globe, Online Petition Draws Attention to Indonesia's Shark Fin Shame, 11 September, 2012.
- Scan of letter to Jakarta Animal Aid Letter from PT Angkasa Pura II, 20 September 2012
- Hotelier Indonesia, Airport finally bans the sale of sharkfins after thousands sign change.org petition
- "Pojok Baca Kini Hadir di Bandara Soekarno Hatta". July 23, 2013.
- "PRESIDENT SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO OFFICIALLY OPENS NEW HEAD OFFICE AND THE UNVEILING OF NEW GARUDA INDONESIA CONCEPT OF SERVICE." Garuda Indonesia. Thursday 23 July 2009. Retrieved on 16 September 2010.
- "Informasi Perusahaan." Angkasa Pura II. Retrieved on 16 September 2010. "Kantor Pusat PT (Persero) Angkasa Pura II Bandara Internasional Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta."
- "Commuter line airport train to operate in 2013". March 29, 2012.
- "KAI: Airport train ready in 2013". December 9, 2011.
- "Ada Kereta Ekspress, Dari Bandara Halim ke Soetta Hanya 30 Menit". January 13, 2014.
- Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
- "Final flight: SilkAir". Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA).
- Sakina Rakhma Diah Setiawan (April 1, 2014). "Soekarno-Hatta Peringkat Empat The World's Most Improved Airport".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport.|
- PT. Angkasa Pura II: Jakarta International Soekarno–Hatta Airport (English)
- Airport information for WIII at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
- Airport information for CGK at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective Oct. 2006).
- Current weather for WIII at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for CGK at Aviation Safety Network
- Sound recording from inside Soekarno Hatta airport