Sohaemus of Emesa

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This article is about the Emesene Priest King in the 1st century. For the Emesene Aristocrat and King of Armenia in the 2nd century, see Sohaemus of Armenia.

Gaius Julius Sohaemus Philocaesar Philorhomaeus,[1][2] also known as Sohaemus of Emesa and Sohaemus of Sophene (Greek: Γαίος Ιούλιος Σόαιμος Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος, Sohaemus is Arabic for little dagger, Philocaesar Philoromaios, means in Greek lover of Caesar, lover of Rome) was a prince and a Roman Client Priest King from Syria who lived in the 1st century.

Sohaemus was a member of the Royal family of Emesa. He was the second born son and a child to Priest King Sampsiceramus II who ruled the Emesene Kingdom from 14 until 42 and Queen Iotapa. He had an elder brother called Gaius Julius Azizus, who was the first husband of the Herodian Princess Drusilla and had two sisters: Iotapa who married the Herodian Prince Aristobulus Minor and Mamaea.[3] Sohaemus was born, raised in Emesa and was of Assyrian, Armenian, Greek and Median ancestry. His paternal grandfather was the former Emesene Priest King Iamblichus II,[4] while his maternal grandparents were the former Commagenean Monarchs Mithridates III of Commagene and his cousin-wife Iotapa.

Azizus had died in 54 and Sohaemus succeeded his brother as Priest King. He ruled from 54 until his death in 73 and was the priest of the Syrian Sun God, known in Aramaic as El-Gebal. At an unknown date in his reign, Sohaemus became the patron of the Roman colony of Heliopolis[5] (modern Baalbek, Lebanon). In honor of his patronage to Heliopolis, a statue of him with an accompanied honorific inscription was dedicated to him in the city.[6] The honorary Latin inscription reads:

Regi magno C(aio) Iulio Sohaemo regis magni Sam- sigerami f(ilio), philo- caesari et philo- [r]okmaeo, honora- t[o ornamentis] consulari- b[us-------------------------------]. patrono coloniae (duum)viro quinquenn(ali) L(ucius) Vitellius L(uci) f(ilius) Fab(ia tribu) Soss[i]a[nus].[7]

The inscription dedicates and honors, Sampsiceramus II with his son Sohaemus each as a Great King [Regis Magni].[8] In the inscription, Sohaemus is honored as a duumveir quinquennalis; a Patron of the colony at Heliopolis and has been granted the ornamenta consularia [honorary consular status].[9]

In the first year of his reign, under either Roman emperor Claudius or Nero, Sohaemus received the Roman province of Sophene to rule. As Sophene was near the source of the Tigris river, he would have been able to mount his archers to ward off the Parthians.[10] In 56, Sohaemus married his relative who was the Princess Drusilla of Mauretania. She was the child of the late Roman Client Monarchs Ptolemy of Mauretania and Julia Urania. Drusilla was the great grandchild of Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony.[11]

In Sohaemus’ reign, Emesene’s relations with the Roman government grew closer. When Vespasian in 69 became Roman emperor, Sohaemus was among the first to swear allegiance to him.[12] Under him, Emesa sent the Roman military a regular levy of archers and assisted them in their siege of Jerusalem in 70. In 72, Sohaemus supplied troops to the Roman General Lucius Caesennius Paetus who was the head of the Legio VI Ferrata, in the annexation of the Kingdom of Commagene.

Drusilla was a Queen consort to Sohaemus.[13] Drusilla bore him a son called Gaius Julius Alexio,[14] who is also known as Alexio II. When Sohaemus died, he was buried in the tomb of his ancestors at Emesa and was succeeded by his son. Through his son, Sohaemus would have various descendants ruling on the Emesene throne and among those who claimed from his family’s ancestry was Queen of Palmyra, Zenobia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Temporini, 2, Principat: 9, 2, Volume 8, p.213
  2. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.224
  3. ^ Levick, Julia Domna, Syrian Empress, p.xx
  4. ^ Levick, Julia Domna, Syrian Empress, p.xx
  5. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.70
  6. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.224
  7. ^ Temporini, 2, Principat: 9, 2, Volume 8, p.213
  8. ^ Temporini, 2, Principat: 9, 2, Volume 8, p.213
  9. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.p.70&224
  10. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.70
  11. ^ Cleopatra’s Children and Descendants: credited by Karl Leon Ciccone at Ancient History by Suite101
  12. ^ Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p.70
  13. ^ Cleopatra’s Children and Descendants at Ancient History by Suite101
  14. ^ Cleopatra’s Children and Descendants: credited by Karl Leon Ciccone at Ancient History by Suite101

Sources[edit]

  • H. Temporini & W. Haase, 2, Principat: 9, 2, Volume 8, Walter de Gruyter, 1978
  • S. Swain, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, Ad 50-250, Oxford University Press, 1996
  • J.P. Brown, Israel and Hellas, Volume 3, Walter de Gruyter, 2001
  • A.R. Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, Routledge, 2002
  • B. Levick, Julia Domna, Syrian Empress, Taylor & Francis, 2007
  • Kingdom of Commagene
  • Royal Egyptian Genealogy, Ptolemaic Dynasty: Cleopatra Selene
  • Cleopatra’s Children and Descendants at Ancient History by Suite101