Sokkate

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Sokkate
စုက္ကတေး
King of Pagan
Reign April 1038 – 16 December 1044
Predecessor Kyiso
Successor Anawrahta
House Pagan
Father Nyaung-u Sawrahan
Mother Ale Pyinthe (Queen of Middle Palace)
Born 29 March 1001
Saturday, 3rd waxing of Kason 363 ME[note 1]
Pagan
Died 16 December 1044(1044-12-16) (aged 43)
8th waning of Pyatho 406 ME[note 2]
Myinkaba
Religion Ari Buddhism

Sokkate (Burmese: စုက္ကတေး [soʊʔ kə té]; 29 March 1001 – 16 December 1044) was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1038 to 1044. The king lost his life in a single combat with Anawrahta, who succeeded him and went on to found the Pagan Empire.

According to the chronicles, Sokkate was a son of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan whose reign was usurped by King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu. Kunhsaw married Nyuang-u's three chief queens, two of whom were pregnant and subsequently gave birth to Kyiso and Sokkate. Sokkate and Kyiso were raised by Kunhsaw as his own sons. When the two sons reached manhood, they forced Kunhsaw to abdicate the throne and become a monk. When Sokkate became king, he took one of Kunhsaw's queens who had given birth to Anawrahta. When Anawrahta came of age, he challenged Sokkate to single combat, and killed the king.[1]

Dates[edit]

Various chronicles do not agree on the dates regarding his life and reign.[2] The oldest chronicle Zatadawbon Yazawin is considered to be the most accurate for the Pagan period.[note 3] However, Zata itself is contradictory in its reporting of his birth date.[3] The table below lists the dates given by four main chronicles, as well as Hmannan's dates when anchored by the Anawrahta's inscriptionally verified accession date of 1044. The length of reign is given as 6 years by Zata but according to the other chronicles, it was Kyiso, the predecessor, who ruled for six years.[2] Moreover, according to Hmannan, Sokkate was three months younger than his half-brother Kyiso.[4]

Chronicles Birth–Death Age Reign Length of reign
Zatadawbon Yazawin (List of Pagan monarchs section) 1000–1044 44 1038–1044 6
Zatadawbon Yazawin (Horoscope section) 992–1044 52 1038–1044 6
Maha Yazawin 951–1002 51 977–1002 25
Yazawin Thit and Hmannan Yazawin 965–1018 52 992–1018 25
Hmannan adjusted 992–1044 52 1020–1044 24

Accession[edit]

Sokkate succeeded his brother Kyiso at age 36 c. March/April 1038.[note 4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Zata 1960: 63): Zatadawbon Yazawin's horoscope section says he was born in year 353. However, 353 is a typo since its own reporting per (Zata 1960: 39) says King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu came to power in 363 ME, after which his brother Kyiso and he were born.
  2. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 230) says Sokkate was overthrown on Monday, 8th waning of Pyatho, 379 ME (13 January 1018). But the Myazedi inscription and Zatadawbon Yazawin both say Anawrahta came to power in 406 ME (1044/1045 CE). Assuming that 8th waning of Pyatho is correct, Anawrahta ascended the throne on 16 December 1044 (8th waning of Pyatho 406 ME).
  3. ^ (Maha Yazawin 2006: 346–349): Among the four major chronicles, only Zatadawbon Yazawin's dates line up with Anawrahta's inscriptionally verified accession date of 1044 CE. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 121–123): In general, Zata is considered "the most accurate of all Burmese chronicles, particularly with regard to the best-known Pagan and Ava kings, many of whose dates have been corroborated by epigraphy."
  4. ^ Based on Zata's reporting per (Zata 1960: 63), he came to power at age 36 in year 400 ME. It means he came to power between the new year's day of 400 ME (25 March 1038) and the day before his 37th birthday, 8 April 1038 (2nd waxing of Kason 400 ME).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 31
  2. ^ a b Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 347
  3. ^ Zata 1960: 39, 63
  4. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 227

Bibliography[edit]

Sokkate
Born: 29 March 1001 Died: 16 December 1044
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Kyiso
King of Pagan
1038–1044
Succeeded by
Anawrahta