Solar eclipse of July 11, 2010

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Solar eclipse of July 11, 2010
Eclipse 2010 Hao 1.JPG
Totality from French Polynesia
SE2010Jul11T.png
Map
Type of eclipse
Nature Total
Gamma -0.6788
Magnitude 1.058
Maximum eclipse
Duration 5m 20s
Coordinates 19.7S 121.9W
Max. width of band 259 km
Times (UTC)
(P1) Partial begin 17:09:41
(U1) Total begin 18:15:15
Greatest eclipse 19:34:38
(U4) Total end 20:51:42
(P4) Partial end 21:57:16
References
Saros 146 (27 of 76)
Catalog # (SE5000) 9530

The total solar eclipse of July 11, 2010, occurred over the southern Pacific Ocean.[1] A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across the surface of the Earth, while a partial solar eclipse will be visible over a region thousands of kilometres wide.

Visibility[edit]

Animated map of the eclipse's visibility over the southern Pacific Ocean

The eclipse on this day was one of the most remote in recorded history. It was visible over much of the southern Pacific Ocean, touching several atolls in French Polynesia, the Cook Islands, Easter Island, and Argentina's Patagonian plains.[2]

Fred Espenak, a NASA astrophysicist, said:

"One of the most unique things about this particular eclipse is that it crosses a unique and interesting archaeological site: Easter Island. On Easter Island there are these great statues... There's a lot of mystery about these statues, but in any case, this is the first total eclipse to hit the island in about 1,400 years."[3]

The best one occurred in French Polynesia, where it was seen in 98 percent, At the spectacular eclipse, The diamond ring effect and the Baily's beads happened.

It ended at sunset over the southern tips of Argentina and Chile in South America, including the town of El Calafate. The Sun's altitude was only 1° during the 2 minute 47 second total phase, but Argentino Lake offered an adequate line-of-sight to the eclipse hanging just above the rugged Andes skyline.[1]

A 58% partiality occurred at sunset in Santiago, Chile, but it was not visible due to adverse weather conditions. In other cities such as Valparaíso and Coquimbo, clearer skies permitted the event to be witnessed in continental Chile.

Observations[edit]

Time lapse images of the eclipse as seen from mainland Chile
The moon's diameter was over 5% larger than the sun's, represented by the magnitude of eclipse of the table above, making for a relatively long eclipse duration of 5 minutes, 20 seconds.

Total eclipse began 700 kilometers (430 mi) southeast of Tonga at approximately 18:15 UTC and reached Easter Island by 20:11 UTC.[4] The global sky photography project The World At Night stationed photographers throughout the eclipse's visibility track. Eclipse chasers photographed the event on board a chartered airplane, cruise ships, numerous Pacific islands, and in Argentina's Patagonia region. Totality was observed for four minutes and 41 seconds (4:41) on Easter Island,[2] where it was observed for the first time in 1,400 years.[5] Approximately 4,000 observers visited Easter Island for this eclipse, including tourists, scientists, photographers, filmmakers and journalists,[6] prompting an increase in security at its important moai archeological sites. The eclipse occurred at the same time that the final game of the 2010 FIFA World Cup was being played in South Africa, and many soccer fans in Tahiti watched the match instead of observing the partial eclipse with a high percentage of obscuring the sun by about 98 percent.[4][7] The path of totality of this eclipse barely missed some significant inhabited islands, including passing just about 20 km north of the northern end of Tahiti.[citation needed]

This eclipse was the first one to happen over French Polynesia in 350 years. An estimated 5,000 tourists visited various islands in the archipelago to observe the event. Nearly 120,000 pairs of special glasses were distributed for observers.[8] Eclipse chasers were also able to observe the eclipse at El Calafate, near the southern tip of Argentina, before the sun set just two minutes later.[2]

Several hours after the eclipse was observed in continental Chile, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck in the Antofagasta Region. There were no major injuries or damage in the nearby cities of Calama, Chile and San Pedro de Atacama.[9]

Related eclipses[edit]

Solar eclipses 2008–2011[edit]

Each member in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats approximately every 177 days and 4 hours (a semester) at alternating nodes of the moon's orbit.

Solar eclipse series sets from 2008–2011
Ascending node   Descending node
Saros Map Saros Map
121
Solar eclipse 2008Feb07-New Zealand-partial-Greg Hewgill.jpg
Partial from New Zealand
2008 February 7
SE2008Feb07A.png
Annular
126
NovosibirskTotalEclipsePhoto-cropped.jpg
Total from Novosibirsk, Russia
2008 August 1
SE2008Aug01T.png
Total
131
Solar eclipse of January 26, 2009 by Jefferson Teng.jpg
Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
2009 January 26
SE2009Jan26A.png
Annular
136
Solar eclipse 22 July 2009 taken by Lutfar Rahman Nirjhar from Bangladesh.jpg
Total from Bangladesh
2009 July 22
SE2009Jul22T.png
Total
141
(closeup) Solar annular eclipse of January 15, 2010 in Bangui, Central African Republic.JPG
Bangui, Central African Republic
2010 January 15
SE2010Jan15A.png
Annular
146
Eclipse 2010 Hao 1.JPG
Total from French Polynesia
2010 July 11
SE2010Jul11T.png
Total
151
Solar eclipse poland 4thjan2011.jpg
Partial from Poland
2011 January 4
SE2011Jan04P.png
Partial (north)
156 2011 July 1
SE2011Jul01P.png
Partial (south)
Partial solar eclipses on June 1, 2011, and November 25, 2011, occur on the next lunar year eclipse set.

Metonic series[edit]

The metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years (6939.69 days), lasting about 5 cycles. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of that or every 3.8 years (1387.94 days).

This series has 21 eclipse events between July 11, 1953 and July 11, 2029.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 July 11". NASA. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Malik, Tariq (July 12, 2010). "Total solar eclipse blots out sun, amazes skywatchers". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Solar Eclipse to Darken Easter Island Sunday". National Geographic Society. July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Total solar eclipse crosses South Pacific". BBC News. July 11, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  5. ^ Yang, Yi (July 9, 2010). "Solar Eclipse: First to Hit Easter Island in 1400 Years". The Epoch Times. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  6. ^ Eclipse chasing: four minutes of bliss, Australian Geographic, July 16, 2010
  7. ^ Tee, Gillian (July 10, 2010). "Solar eclipse predicted at same time as World Cup final". CNN. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  8. ^ "French Polynesia awaits first solar eclipse in 350 years". Australia Network. July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ "6.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Chile Hours After Solar Eclipse". All Headline News. July 12, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 

References[edit]