Solar eclipse of June 8, 1918
|Solar eclipse of June 8, 1918|
|Type of eclipse|
|Max. width of band||112 km|
|Saros||126 (42 of 72)|
|Catalog # (SE5000)||9324|
A total solar eclipse occurred on June 8, 1918. The eclipse was observed by a U.S. Naval Observatory team at Baker City in Oregon. The painting below shows totality when the moon prevented the sun's rays from hitting that part of Oregon. The track of the eclipse went across the United States.
The path of the eclipse started south of Japan, went across the Pacific Ocean, and then across the United States. The largest city to see totality was Denver although many could theoretically see it as the size of the shadow was between 70 and 44 miles across as it travelled across America. The longest duration of totality was in the Pacific at a point south of Alaska. The path of the eclipse finished near Bermuda.
U.S. Observation team
The path clipped Washington State and then moved across the whole of Oregon and then the rest of the country exiting over Florida. The U.S. Naval Observatory obtained a special grant of $3,500 from Congress for a team to observe the eclipse in Baker City in Oregon. The team had been making preparations since the year before and John C. Hammond led the first members to Baker City on April 11th. The location was important as it influenced the probability of cloud cover and the duration and angle of the sun during the eclipse. The team included Samuel Alfred Mitchell as its expert on eclipses, and Howard Russell Butler, an artist and physicist. In a time before colour photography, Butler's role was to paint the eclipse at totality after observing it for 112.1 seconds. He noted later that he used a system of taking notes of the colours using skills he had learnt for transient effects.
As the time came for totality the team watched as clouds obscured the sun. The clouds did clear but during their most important observations the sun was covered by thin cloud. The sun was completely visible five minutes later. This was not unusual as cloudy conditions were reported across the country where the eclipse was also observed from the Yerkes Observatory, Lick Observatory and Mount Wilson Observatory.
There were two other eclipses that year. The first was a partial lunar eclipse, during which the shadow of the earth can be seen on the moon, and another solar eclipse that took place on December 3 over South America. The other solar eclipse however was an annular eclipse which occurs when the moon has a smaller apparent diameter and therefore never fully obscures the sun.
Solar eclipses of 1916-1920
|Ascending node||Descending node|
|111||December 24, 1916
|116||June 19, 1917
|121||December 14, 1917
|126||June 8, 1918
|131||December 3, 1918
|136||May 29, 1919
|141||November 22, 1919
|146||May 18, 1920
|151||November 10, 1920
- Motherwell, R.M. (1918). "The Total Solar Eclipse, June 8, 1918". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 12: 160–168A. Bibcode:1918JRASC..12..160M.
- Hammond, J.C. (1919). "The Naval Observatory eclipse expedition, June 8, 1918". Popular Astronomy 27 (1): 1. Bibcode:1919PA.....27....1H.
- Lawrence, Jenny; Richard Milner (February 2000). "A Forgotten Cosmic Designer". Natural History. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- "Total Solar Eclipse of June 8, 1918". Nature 102 (2553): 89–90. 3 October 1918. Bibcode:1918Natur.102...89.. doi:10.1038/102089a0.
- NASA graphic
- Eclipse of June 8, 1918. Contact print from the original glass plate negative. Lick Observatory Plate Archive, Mt. Hamilton.
- Foto and sketch of Solar Corona June 8, 1918
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solar eclipse of 1918 June 8.|