Main article: Solar cycle
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Three recent solar cycles
Solar maximum or solar max is a normal period of greatest solar activity in the 11 year solar cycle of the Sun. During solar maximum, large numbers of sunspots appear and the sun's irradiance output grows by about 0.1%. The increased energy output of solar maxima can impact global climate and recent studies have shown some correlation with regional weather patterns.
At solar maximum, the Sun's magnetic field lines are the most distorted due to the magnetic field on the solar equator rotating at a slightly faster pace than at the solar poles. The solar cycle takes an average of about 11 years to go from one solar maximum to the next, with an observed variation in duration of 9 to 14 years for any given solar cycle.
Large solar flares often occur during a maximum. For example, the Solar storm of 1859 struck the Earth with such intensity that the northern lights could be seen as far south as Rome, approximately 42° north of the equator.
Predictions of a future maximum's timing and strength are very difficult; predictions vary widely. The last solar maximum was in 2000. In 2006 NASA initially expected a solar maximum in 2010 or 2011, and thought that it could be the strongest since 1958. However, more recent projections say the maximum should arrive in autumn of 2013 and be the smallest sunspot cycle since 1906.
IMAX documentary about solar maximum called Solarmax.
NASA CME documentary X class Corona Mass Ejection 2012-07-14 documentary
Grand solar minima and maxima
Grand solar maxima occur when several solar cycles exhibit greater than average activity for decades or centuries. Solar cycles still occur during these grand solar maximum periods but the intensity of those cycles are more intense. Grand solar maxima have shown some correlation with global and regional climate changes.
A list of historical Grand minima of solar activity includes also Grand minima ca. 690 AD, 360 BC, 770 BC, 1390 BC, 2860 BC, 3340 BC, 3500 BC, 3630 BC, 3940 BC, 4230 BC, 4330 BC, 5260 BC, 5460 BC, 5620 BC, 5710 BC, 5990 BC, 6220 BC, 6400 BC, 7040 BC, 7310 BC, 7520 BC, 8220 BC, 9170 BC.
- ^ http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=37575
- ^ "Solar Storm Warning", Science@NASA, 10 March 2006, Accessed 26 Mar. 2010
- ^ "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics - Solar Cycle Prediction". NASA. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- ^ "Solarmax (2000)". IMDB. Seattle, WA, USA: Amazon.com, Inc. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- ^ Celia Martin-Puertas, Katja Matthes, Achim Brauer, Raimund Muscheler, Felicitas Hansen, Christof Petrick, Ala Aldahan, Göran Possnert & Bas van Geel (April 2, 2012). "Regional atmospheric circulation shifts induced by a grand solar minimum". Nature Geoscience 5: 397–401. Bibcode:2012NatGe...5..397M. doi:10.1038/ngeo1460.
- ^ Usoskin, Ilya G.; Solanki, Sami K.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A. (2007). "Grand minima and maxima of solar activity: new observational constraints" (PDF). Astron. Astrophys. 471 (1): 301–9. arXiv:0706.0385. Bibcode:2007A&A...471..301U. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077704.