Solar power in Virginia on rooftops is estimated to be capable of providing 24% of electricity used in Virginia.
A feed-in tariff is available from the Tennessee Valley Authority, which pays $1,000 for signing up, plus the current rate for electricity plus $0.12/kWh for all generation. Systems are limited to from 0.5 kW to 50 kW. Payment is for 10 years. Payments are in the form of monthly credits to the consumers regular monthly bill and are paid monthly or annually at TVA's choice. Payments are for 10 years, and payment at retail can be extended for an additional 10 years. A standard offer program is available for systems from 50 kW to 1 MW, which pays from 4 to 6 cents/kWh above retail for the first 10 years. Net metering is available, but residential customers with from 10 to 20 kW arrays could pay a monthly "standby charge" of up to $60/month. As of December 2, 2011, only one customer in Virginia was a residential customer with an array of that size. Standby charges were implemented in California by two utilities until they were banned by the California PUC. Commercial customers with up to 500 kW can use net metering and are not subject to a standby charge. Credits are perpetually rolled over, and customers can request payment once a year at avoided cost. Best practices do not recommend any limits to net metering, either individually or aggregate, other than to the customers service entrance capacity, and perpetual roll over of kilowatt credits.
Net metering requires a bi-directional meter, but other than that is simply an accounting procedure, and is more easily discovered by the utility than requiring any sign-up or reporting, just as air conditioning use is discovered, and does not require any sign-up or reporting. At low levels of local generation there is no impact to the utility other than the change in recording and reporting. At high levels utilities need to contract with or provide storage or export/import of the excess electricity generation. Germany, with 26 GW of solar and 29 GW of wind, which exceeds Germany's peak load of 50 GW, has not reached the point where this is an issue. During the summer wind output is reduced, as is solar during the winter. Solar tends to make up all of the peak load during the summer. Virginia currently has two pumped hydro-storage facilities.
Virginia's largest solar array is the 504 kW rooftop array located in Woodbridge. It is expected to produce 636,199 kWh of electricity each year.