Solar energy in the European Union

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Solar power in the European Union)
Jump to: navigation, search
Map of solar insolation on the Europen continent. Annual values range from 900 kWh per square metre (in Northern Scotland) to 1900 kWh per square metre (in Southern Spain).
Solar potential in Europe.

Solar energy in the European Union consists of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal energy.

In 2010, the €2.6 billion European solar heating sector consisted of small and medium-sized businesses, generated 17.3 terawatt-hours (TWh) of energy, employed 33,500 workers, and created one new job for every 80 kW of added capacity.[1]

During 2011, an additional 21.9 gigawatts (GW) of photovoltaics systems were connected to the grid in the European Union, a steep increase from 13.4 GW in 2010.[2] Turnover of the European PV market amounted to approximately €36 billion for this period.[3]

Photovoltaic solar power[edit]

Further information: Photovoltaics and Growth of photovoltaics
PV growth in 'watts per capita' from 1992 to 2013.
  <0.1, n/a
  0.1-1
  1-10
  10-50
  50-100
  100-150
  150-200
  200-300
  300-450

In 2012, more than 69 GW were installed at the global level, producing 85 TWh of electricity every year. This energy volume is sufficient to power annually the supply needs of over 20 million households. In terms of global cumulative installed capacity, according to the latest report of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association, in 2012, Europe still leads the way with more than 70 GW (i.e. about 69% of the world’s total solar photovoltaic cumulative capacity).[2] In 2011, solar photovoltaic continued its growth trend and Italy was the top market for the year, with 9.3 GW connected, followed by Germany (7.5 GW). These two markets were followed by France (1.7 GW) and the United Kingdom (784 MW). In terms of cumulative capacity, Germany with more than 24 GW, is the leading country in Europe,[2] followed by Italy, with more than 12 GW. PV is now a significant part of Europe's electricity mix, producing 2% of the demand in the EU and roughly 4% of peak demand.[2]

In 2011 the EU’s solar electricity production is evaluated as ca 44.8 TWh in 2011 with 51.4 GW installed capacity, up 98% on 2010. In 2011 in the EU new installations were 21.5 GW. The solar power share in 2011 was around 3.6% in Italy, 3.1% in Germany and 2.6% in Spain. EuroObserver expects the total installation to reach at least 120 GW in 2020. The national strategies are equivalent to 84 GW solar capacity in 2020 which may underestimate the actual development taking place. For example, according to AGEE-Stat (the Ministry of Environment’s Working Group on Renewable Energy Statistics), Germany connected solar capacity 7.5 GWp in 2011, twice the 3.5 GWp target. EU accounted for 74% of all newly connected capacity in 2011. According to Photon International magazine the worldwide solar cell production capacity was 12.5 GW in 2009 and 37 GW in 2011. In 2012, production capacities are set to rise to 69 GW, same as the total installed capacity worldwide at the end of 2011.[4]

Denmark reached its governmental goal of achieving 200 MW of photovoltaic capacity by 2020 already in 2012, eight years in advance. Danish energy sector players estimate that this development will result in 1000 MW by 2020.[5] Croatian as the newest member of the EU has a less than enthusiastic embrace of solar power due to a number of reasons. However, in past few years, Croatian solar energy has seen a dramatic increase in the overall output. From 32.4 MWh in 2012, to an additional 46,2 MWh in 2013 with another 108 MWh[6] awaiting to be connected to the national grid and additional power plants under construction with total energy output exceeding 200 MWh. Croatian national renewable energy strategy is to increase participating share of renewable in overall energy mix from current 15.8% (end of 2012) to around 25% by 2020 with solar generating at least 500 MWh.

PV in the European Union (MWpeak)[7][8][9][10][11][10][12]
# Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1 Germany Germany 1,910 3,063 3,846 6,019 9,959 17,370 24,875 32,698 36,013
2 Italy Italy 46 58 120 458 1,157 3,478 12,764 16,361 17,614
3 Spain Spain 58 118 733 3,421 3,438 3,808 4,214 4,516 4,705
4 France France 26 33 47 104 335 1,054 2,831 4,027 4,697
5 Belgium Belgium 2 4 22 71 574 787 1,812 2,649 2,983
6 United Kingdom United Kingdom 11 14 19 23 30 75 1,014 1,657 2,739
7 Greece Greece 5 7 9 19 55 205 631 1,543 2,585
8 Czech Republic Czech 0 1 4 55 463 1,953 1,959 2,022 2,132
9 Romania Romania 0 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 2 2.9 49 1,022
10 Bulgaria Bulgaria 0 0 0.8 1 6 17 132 933 1,019
11 Austria Austria 24 29 27 32 53 103 173 421 690
12 Netherlands Netherlands 51 51 53 57 68 97 118 321 665
13 Slovakia Slovakia 0 0 0 <0.1 0.2 144 488 517 537
14 Denmark Denmark 3 3 3 3 5 7 16 391 531
15 Portugal Portugal 3 4 18 68 102 131 143 228 281
16 Slovenia Slovenia 0.2 0.4 1 2 9 36 90 217 254
17 Luxembourg Luxembourg 24 24 24 25 26 27 30 76 100
18 Lithuania Lithuania 0 0 0 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1 6.1 68
19 Sweden Sweden 4 5 6 8 9 10 18 23 43
20 Cyprus Cyprus 0.5 1 1 2 3 6 10 17 34
21 Malta Malta 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 2 2 11 18 24
22 Croatia Croatia 0.5 1.2 3.2 5.6 12 16 16 21 24
23 Hungary Hungary 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 2 4.1 3.7 15
24 Finland Finland 4 4 5 6 8 10 11 11 11
25 Poland Poland 0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1 2 1.8 3.4 4.2
26 Latvia Latvia 0 0 0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 1.5 1.5 1.5
27 Ireland Ireland 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 1
28 Estonia Estonia 0 0 0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
European Union EU (GWp) 2.17 3.42 4.94 10.38 15.86 29.33 51.36 68.64 78.80
PV in watts per capita [11][12]
# Country 2011 2012 2013
1 Germany Germany 304.3 399.5 447.2
2 Italy Italy 210.5 269.0 295.1
3 Belgium Belgium 165.5 240.0 267.3
5 Greece Greece 55.8 136.7 233.7
4 Czech Republic Czech 186.0 192.5 202.8
6 Luxembourg Luxembourg 59.9 89.9 186.2
7 Bulgaria Bulgaria 17.7 127.4 139.9
8 Slovenia Slovenia 44.1 105.7 123.8
9 Spain Spain 91.3 97.8 100.7
10 Slovakia Slovakia 89.8 95.7 99.3
11 Denmark Denmark 3.0 70.2 94.8
12 Austria Austria 20.7 49.9 81.7
12 France France 43.5 61.6 71.6
13 Malta Malta 27.4 45.0 58.7
14 Romania Romania 0.1 0.3 51.1
15 United Kingdom United Kingdom 16.2 26.3 42.9
17 Cyprus Cyprus 12.5 19.9 40.2
18 Netherlands Netherlands 7.1 19.1 39.6
19 Portugal Portugal 13.5 21.7 26.8
20 Lithuania Lithuania 0.0 2.0 22.9
21 Croatia Croatia 0.1 0.1 5.1
22 Sweden Sweden 2.0 2.5 4.5
23 Finland Finland 2.1 2.1 2.1
24 Hungary Hungary 0.4 0.4 1.6
25 Latvia Latvia 0.7 0.7 0.7
26 Ireland Ireland 0.2 0.2 0.2
27 Estonia Estonia 0.1 0.1 0.1
28 Poland Poland 0.0 0.1 0.1
European Union EU average 102.2 136.3 155.8

Concentrated solar power[edit]

Solar power, the production of electricity from solar energy, is performed either directly, through photovoltaics, or indirectly, using concentrated solar power (CSP). One advantage that CSP has is the ability to add thermal storage and provide power up to 24 hours a day.[13] Gemasolar, in Spain, was the first to provide 24 hour power.[14]

CSP in Europe (MWpeak)[15][16]
# Country 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1 Spain Spain 10.00 60.00 281.40 531.40 1,151.40 1,953.90 2,303.90
2 Italy Italy 0 0 0 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.35
3 Germany Germany 0 0 0 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
4 France France 0 0 0 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.75
European Union EU 10 60 281 738 1,159 1,961 2,311

Solar thermal[edit]

Main article: Solar heating

Over the next 10 years the European solar thermal will grow on average at a rate of 15% per annum. According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans the total solar thermal capacity in the EU will be 102 GW in 2020 (while 14 GW in 2006).[1]

In June 2009, the European Parliament and Council adopted the Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). For the first time, heating and cooling accounting for half of the final energy demand will be covered by a European directive promoting renewable energies. The overall renewable target is legally binding but renewable mix is free. According to the delivered national plans the highest of solar heating markets during 2010-2020 will be in Italy, Germany, France, Spain and Poland in respect to the national target in 2020 and capacity increase. Top countries per capita will be Cyprus, Greece, Austria, Italy and Belgium.[1]

In some European countries the solar thermal market is still in its infancy. Bulgaria, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, and United Kingdom have extremely low targets in their plans. Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Romania have not included solar thermal in their national plans at all.[1]

Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide space or water heating. Worldwide the use was 88 GWthermal in 2005. Growth potential is enormous. The EU have been second after China in the installations. If all EU countries had used solar thermal as enthusiastically as the Austrians, the EU’s installed capacity would have been 91 GWth (130 million m2, far beyond the target of 100 million m2 by 2010, set by the White Paper in 1997. In 2005 solar heating in the EU was equivalent to more than 686,000 tons of oil. ESTIF’s minimum target is to produce solar heating equivalent to 5,600,000 tons of oil (2020). A more ambitious, but feasible, target is 73 millions tons of oil per year (2020) – a lorry row spanning 1,5 times around the globe.[17]

Solar heating in the European Union (MWthermal)[18][19][20][21][22][16]
# Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1  Germany 7,766 9,036 9,831 10,496 11,416 12,055
2  Greece 2,708 2,853 2,855 2,861 2,885 2,915
3  Austria 2,268 3,031 3,227 2,792 3,448 3,538
4  Italy 1,124 1,410 1,753 2,152 2,380 2,590
5  Spain 988 1,306 1,543 1,659 2,075 2,238
6  France 1,137 1,287 1,470 1,277 1,691 1,802
7  Netherlands 254 285 313 332 605 616
8  Portugal 223 395 526 547 677 717
9  Cyprus 485 490 491 499 486 476
10  Czech Republic 116 148 216 265 625 681
11  Poland 254 357 459 637 848 1,040
12  Denmark 293 339 379 409 499 550
13  United Kingdom 270 333 374 460 455 475
14  Sweden 202 217 227 236 337 342
15  Belgium 188 204 230 226 334 374
16  Slovenia 96 111 116 123 142 148
17  Ireland 52 85 106 111 177 196
18  Romania 66 80 73 74 93 110
19  Slovakia 67 73 84 100 108 113
20  Hungary 18 59 105 120 125 137
21  Bulgaria 22 56 74 81 58 59
22  Malta 25 29 32 36 34 35
23  Finland 18 20 23 23 30 33
24  Luxembourg 16 19 22 25 23 27
25  Latvia 1 1 1 3 10 12
26  Lithuania 1 2 2 3 6 8
27  Estonia 1 2 2 3 4 6
28  Croatia 84 98
European Union EU (in GW) 19.08 21.60 23.49 25.55 29.66 31.39
Notes:
Solar heating in watts per capita[15][16]
# Country 2011 2013
1  Cyprus 609 551
2  Austria 397 419
3  Greece 253 263
4  Germany 130 150
5  Malta 80 83
6  Denmark 78 108
7  Slovenia 65 72
8  Portugal 58 68
9  Czech Republic 53 65
10  Spain 41 48
11  Luxembourg 37 51
12  Sweden 35 36
12  Netherlands 35 37
14  Italy 34 43
15  Ireland 27 43
15  Belgium 27 34
17  France 25 27
18  Slovakia 19 21
19  Poland 17 27
20  Bulgaria 11 8
21  Hungary 9 14
22  United Kingdom 7 7
23  Finland 5 6
24  Romania 4 6
24  Latvia 4 6
26  Estonia 1 4
27  Lithuania 1 3
28  Croatia n.a. 23
European Union EU average 55 62

Organizations[edit]

The European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) represents members active along the whole solar PV value chain. EPIA’s mission is to give its global membership a distinct and effective voice in the European market, especially in the EU.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d [Solar Thermal Markets in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2010], European Solar Thermal Industry Federation (ESTIF) June 2011 p. 14-15, Figure Capacity in operation 2010/2020
  2. ^ a b c d Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2016
  3. ^ Fact Sheets
  4. ^ Photovoltaic barometer 208 February 2012
  5. ^ Denmark reaches 2020-goal for solar energy before time 12.09.2012
  6. ^ http://www.vecernji.hr/kompanije-i-trzista/razgrabljeni-poticaji-za-solarne-elektrane-915586
  7. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2007 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 178, p. 49-70, 4/2007
  8. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2009 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 190, p. 72-102, 3/2009
  9. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv’ER
  10. ^ a b Photovoltaic energy barometer 2011 – EurObserv’ER
  11. ^ a b Photovoltaic energy barometer 2012 – EurObserv’ER
  12. ^ a b Photovoltaic energy barometer 2013 – EurObserv’ER
  13. ^ Concentrating Solar Power
  14. ^ Spain's round-the-clock solar power plant
  15. ^ a b EurObserv'ER: Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - May 2012
  16. ^ a b c EurObserv'ER: Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - May 2014
  17. ^ Solar Thermal Action Plan for Europe ESTIF, 1/2007
  18. ^ Solar thermal market grows strongly in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2008, ESTIF 5/2009
  19. ^ EurObserv'ER 203 (2011) - Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer
  20. ^ solar_thermal_markets.pdf Solar Thermal Markets in Europe
  21. ^ Solar Thermal Markets in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2010, ESTIF June 2011
  22. ^ Solar Thermal Markets in Europe
  23. ^ since 2010 overseas departments excluded
  24. ^ Solar Thermal Markets in Europe, Trends and market statistics 2006 European Solar Thermal Industry Federation ESTIF, June 2007
  25. ^ "Solar Thermal Markets in Europe, Trends and market statistics 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  26. ^ Solar Thermal Markets in Europe, Trends and market statistics 2009[dead link]http://www.estif.org/fileadmin/estif/content/market_data/downloads/2010%20European%20Solar%20Thermal%20Markets.pdf Solar Thermal Markets in Europe, Trends and market statistics 2010
  27. ^ Mission & Activities

External links[edit]