Soleidae

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This article is about soles of the family Soleidae. For soles of all families, see sole (fish).
Soles
Pegusa lascaris.jpg
Sand sole, Pegusa lascaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Pleuronectiformes
Suborder: Soleoidei
Family: Soleidae
Bonaparte, 1832
Genera[1]

Achiroides
Aesopia
Aseraggodes
Austroglossus
Barnardichthys
Bathysolea
Brachirus
Buglossidium
Dagetichthys
Dicologlossa
Heteromycteris
Leptachirus
Liachirus
Microchirus
Monochirus
Paradicula
Pardachirus
Pegusa
Phyllichthys
Pseudaesopia
Rendahlia
Rhinosolea
Solea
Soleichthys
Synaptura
Synapturichthys
Synclidopus
Typhlachirus
Vanstraelenia
Zebrias

The true soles are a family, Soleidae, of flatfishes. It includes salt and brackish water species in the East Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and West and Central Pacific Ocean. Fresh water species are found in Africa, southern Asia, New Guinea and Australia.

In the past soles of the Americas (both fresh and salt water) were included in this family, but they have been separated to their own family, the American soles (Achiridae). The only true sole remaining in that region is Aseraggodes herrei of the Galápagos and Cocos Island.[2]

The true soles are bottom-dwelling fishes feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. The family contains 30 genera and a total of about 180 species.

Soles begin life as bilaterally symmetric larvae, with an eye on each side of the head. But during development the left eye moves around onto the right side of the head. Adult soles lie on their left (blind) side on the sea floor, often covered in mud which, in combination with their dark colours, makes them hard to spot.

A flatfish resembling a small halibut or sole was observed by the Bathyscaphe Trieste at the bottom of the Mariana Trench at a depth of about 11 km (36,000 ft).[3] This observation has been questioned by fish experts, and recent authorities do not recognize it as valid.[4]

Many soles are important food species: the common sole, Solea solea, is popular in northern Europe and the Mediterranean.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Soleidae" in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Aseraggodes herrei" in FishBase. May 2014 version.
  3. ^ BBC News (23 February 2012). Meet the only man alive who has been to the deepest ocean.. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  4. ^ Jamieson, A.J., and Yancey, P. H. (2012). On the Validity of the Trieste Flatfish: Dispelling the Myth. The Biological Bulletin 222(3): 171-175