Solikamsk

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Solikamsk (English)
Соликамск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Salt dump in Solikamsk.jpg
A salt dump in Solikamsk
Map of Russia - Perm Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Perm Krai in Russia
Solikamsk is located in Perm Krai
Solikamsk
Solikamsk
Location of Solikamsk in Perm Krai
Coordinates: 59°38′36″N 56°45′00″E / 59.64333°N 56.75000°E / 59.64333; 56.75000Coordinates: 59°38′36″N 56°45′00″E / 59.64333°N 56.75000°E / 59.64333; 56.75000
Coat of Arms of Solikamsk (Perm krai) (1783).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Perm Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of krai significance of Solikamsk[1]
Administrative center of Solikamsky District,[1] town of krai significance of Solikamsk[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2009)
Urban okrug Solikamsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Solikamsk Urban Okrug,[2] Solikamsky Municipal District[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 97,384 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 174th
Time zone YEKT (UTC+06:00)[5]
Founded 1430[citation needed]
Solikamsk on WikiCommons

Solikamsk (Russian: Солика́мск) is a town in Perm Krai, Russia. Before Peter the Great's reign, it was the largest industrial centre of the Tsardom of Russia and contains a fine collection of churches from that period. Modern Solikamsk is the third-largest town in the krai, with a population of 97,384 (2010 Census);[4] 102,531 (2002 Census);[6] 110,098 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

The earliest surviving recorded mention of Solikamsk, initially as "Usolye-na-Kamskom" (Усолье на Камском) dates from 1430, in connection with the discovery and exploitation by miners and merchants, probably from Vologda, of massive salt deposits on the banks of the Usolka River.[8] The name of the town is derived from the Russian words "соль" (sol, meaning "salt") and "Кама" (Kama River, flowing through the town).

The rapid growth of Solikamsk in the 17th century was predicated on the establishment of the Babinov Road, which was the only overland route leading from European Russia to Siberia. This road started in Solikamsk. The Stroganov family operated the country's largest salt-mining facilities in Solikamsk and the surrounding area. The local saltworks were described in detail by Johann Georg Gmelin. In the mid-17th century Solikamsk also became the first centre of copper casting in Russia.

After the establishment of iron works in Yekaterinburg and Perm and the construction of a southern highway to Siberia the importance and prosperity of Solikamsk gradually declined. Until 1923, the town was the administrative center of Solikamsky Uyezd in Perm Governorate.

Coat of arms[edit]

Coat of arms was granted to Solikamsk on July 17, 1783. The arms show in the upper half the arms of Perm Governorate. The lower half shows a salt well, due to Solikamsk being the largest producer of salt and magnesium in Russia at the time.

Cultural heritage[edit]

Cultural heritage monuments in Solikamsk include a slew of old churches and several civic buildings of importance, including:

  • The governor's residence (1673-1688), the oldest surviving house in the Urals.
  • A two-storey wooden house dating from the early 18th century.
  • Turchaninov's residence from the 1760s and 1780s.

The most important religious buildings are the following:[9]

  • The Trinity Cathedral (1683–97) with five domes, three far-flung porches (of which two survive), the annex of John the Baptist (consecrated 1689) and the annex of Saint Nicholas (consecrated in 1693). Some architectural elements have no parallel anywhere in Russia.
  • The octagonal Bell Tower was built in 1713. It also has no parallel in Russian architecture.
  • The five-domed Church of the Lord's Epiphany (1688–95) contains a choice selection of icons from a local art museum. The tent-like belfry was rebuilt in the 1940s.
  • The Church of St. John the Baptist (1721–28) with a tall belfry and a huge refectory.
  • The Cathedral of the Cross (1698-1709) was rebuilt by the Soviets into a brewery. It was only in 2009 that the church's dome was restored. The palmette decoration of the walls is the earliest of its kind in Russia.
  • The 5-domed Church of the Mandylion (1689–91) is situated in the former kremlin. Its altar contains another altar, which is very rare. The smaller 1-domed church of Michael the Archangel (1712–25) was intended for winter services.
  • The Monastery of the Holy Trinity contains the 1-domed katholikon (built in 1698-1704) and the belfry-church of the Lord's Ascension (built in 1731-1734, mainly using funds provided by the Turchaninov industrialist family).
  • The Convent of the Saviour's Transfiguration contains the 5-domed katholikon (built in 1683-92) with a tent-like belfry and a tiny church of Mary's Presentation at the Temple (consecrated in 1713).
  • The large and complex Church of the Nativity and the Resurrection was built from 1714 onward. Its domes and belfry were removed by the Bolsheviks.

Other local sights include an old salt pit (in use since 1906) and the Salt Museum which occupies the buildings of a saltworks established in 1878.

The oldest brick building in the Urals, the Church of the Cross's Exultation (1678), is located in the former village of Verkh-Borovaya, 20 kilometers (12 mi) north of Solikamsk.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Solikamsk serves as the administrative center of Solikamsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of krai significance of Solikamsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of krai significance of Solikamsk is incorporated as Solikamsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Salt production[edit]

The town is famous for its production of salt; in particular, potassium chloride, which is used as a fertilizer. More than 11,000 people work in salt mining, 3,000 underground, and 7,000 above ground. It is also close to a labor camp during the Soviet times, which is now used as a museum. There is also a museum dedicated to explaining all stages of salt mining and refining.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #416-67
  2. ^ a b c Law #1772-368
  3. ^ Law #1884-410
  4. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ http://books.google.ru/books?id=UziR6pLM-lEC&pg=PA403
  9. ^ Brumfield, William. Solikamsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs (Moscow: Tri Kvadrata, 2007) ISBN 978-5-94607-069-0 (in English and in Russian)

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №416-67 от 28 февраля 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края», в ред. Закона №273-ПК от 14 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области, Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа, Пермского края». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования. Опубликован: "Звезда", №38, 12 марта 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #416-67 of February 28, 1996 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #273-PK of December 14, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Perm Oblast, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, Perm Krai. Effective as of the moment of publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №1772-368 от 10 ноября 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального образования "Город Соликамск" Пермского края», в ред. Закона №499-ПК от 16 октября 2009 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Пермской области и Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания и администрации Пермской области", №12, I часть, 9 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #1772-368 of November 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formation of the "Town of Solikamsk" of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #499-PK of October 16, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №1884-410 от 9 декабря 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципальных образований Соликамского района Пермского края», в ред. Закона №175-ПК от 7 марта 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области, Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципальных образований Пермского края». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №283, 22 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #1884-410 of December 9, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formations of Solikamsky District of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #175-PK of March 7, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Perm Oblast, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug on Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formations of Perm Krai. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]