Soluble cell adhesion molecules
Soluble cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may represent important biomarkers for inflammatory processes involving activation or damage to cells such as platelets and the endothelium.
They include soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin). The cellular expression of CAMs is difficult to assess clinically, but these soluble forms are present in the circulation and may serve as markers for CAMs.
Research has focused on their role in cardiovascular (particularly atherosclerosis), connective tissue and neoplastic diseases, where blood plasma levels may be a marker of the disease severity or prognosis, and they may be useful in evaluating progress of some treatments.
Many studies have postulated that increased production of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the vascular endothelium (blood vessel lining) plays a role in the development of arterial plaque, with the suggestion from both in vitro and in vivo studies that the CAM production is increased by dyslipidemia (abnormal lipid levels in the blood).
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- Miles EA, Thies F, Wallace FA, et al. (January 2001). "Influence of age and dietary fish oil on plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations". Clin. Sci. 100 (1): 91–100. doi:10.1042/cs20000198. PMID 11115423. "Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin (termed sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin respectively) are found in the plasma, and are elevated during inflammatory conditions in which there is increased expression of the cellular forms of the molecules on endothelial and other cells...Fish oil supplementation significantly decreased plasma sVCAM-1 concentrations in the elderly subjects (P=0.043), with a median decrease of 20% (range 16-60%). These observations suggest that fish oil decreases endothelial activation in elderly subjects."
- Desideri G, Marinucci MC, Tomassoni G, Masci PG, Santucci A, Ferri C (June 2002). "Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (6): 2940–5. doi:10.1210/jc.87.6.2940. PMID 12050277.
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- Van Hoydonck PG, Schouten EG, Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, van Campenhout A, Hoppenbrouwers KP, Temme EH (December 2004). "Does vitamin C supplementation influence the levels of circulating oxidized LDL, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen in healthy male smokers?". Eur J Clin Nutr 58 (12): 1587–93. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.160199010.1038/sj.ejcn.1601990. PMID 15127090. "Markers of oxidation (bilirubin, uric acid, -tocopherol, retinol, malondialdehyde, circulating Oxidized LDL (OxLDL)) and markers of endothelial activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, vWF-antigen) were analysed."
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