Solute carrier family

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The solute carrier (SLC) group of membrane transport proteins include over 300 members organized into 52 families.[1] Most members of the SLC group are located in the cell membrane. The SLC gene nomenclature system was originally proposed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) and is the basis for the official HGNC names of the genes that encode these transporters. A more general transmembrane transporter classification can be found in TCDB database.

Solutes that are transported by the various SLC group members are extraordinarily diverse and include both charged and uncharged organic molecules as well as inorganic ions and the gas ammonia.

As is typical of integral membrane proteins, SLCs contain a number of hydrophobic transmembrane alpha helices connected to each other by hydrophilic intra- and extra-cellular loops. Depending on the SLC, these transporters are functional as either monomers or obligate homo- or hetero-oligomers.

Scope[edit]

By convention of the nomenclature system, members within an individual SLC family have greater than 20-25% sequence homology to each other. In contrast, the homology between SLC families is very low to non-existent.[2] Hence, the criteria for inclusion of a family into the SLC group is not evolutionary relatedness to other SLC families but rather functional (i.e., an integral membrane protein that transports a solute).

The SLC group include examples of transport proteins that are:

The SLC series does not include members of transport protein families that have previously been classified by other widely accepted nomenclature systems including:

Subcellular distribution[edit]

Most members of the SLC group are located in the cell membrane, but some members are located in mitochondria (the most notable one being SLC family 25) or other intracellular organelles.

Nomenclature system[edit]

Names of individual SLC members have the following format:

  • SLCnXm

where:

  • SLC is the root name (SoLute Carrier)
  • n = an integer representing a family (e.g., 1-47)
  • X = a single letter (A, B, C, ...) denoting a subfamily
  • m = an integer representing an individual family member (isoform).

For example SLC1A1 is the first isoform of subfamily A of SLC family 1.

An exception occurs with SLC family 21 (the organic anion transporting polypeptide transporters), which for historical reasons have names in the format SLCOnXm where n = family number, X = subfamily letter, and m = member number.

While the HGNC nomenclature system by definition only includes human genes, the nomenclature system has been informally extended to include rodent species through the use of lowercase letters (e.g., Slc1a1 denotes the rodent ortholog of the human SLC1A1 gene).

Families[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hediger MA, Romero MF, Peng JB, Rolfs A, Takanaga H, Bruford EA (2004). "The ABCs of solute carriers: physiological, pathological and therapeutic implications of human membrane transport proteins: Introduction". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 465–8. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1192-y. PMID 14624363. 
  2. ^ Hoglund, P. J.; Nordstrom, K. J. V.; Schioth, H. B.; Fredriksson, R. (2010). "The Solute Carrier Families Have a Remarkably Long Evolutionary History with the Majority of the Human Families Present before Divergence of Bilaterian Species". Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (4): 1531–1541. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq350. PMC 3058773. PMID 21186191.  edit
  3. ^ Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and pharmacological aspects". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 469–479. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1146-4. PMID 14530974. 
  4. ^ Uldry M, Thorens B (2004). "The SLC2 family of facilitated hexose and polyol transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 480–489. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1085-0. PMID 12750891. 
  5. ^ Palacin M, Kanai Y (2004). "The ancillary proteins of HATs: SLC3 family of amino acid transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 490–494. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1062-7. PMID 14770309. 
  6. ^ Romero MF, Fulton CM, Boron WF (2004). "The SLC4 family of HCO 3 - transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 490–494. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1180-2. PMID 14722772. 
  7. ^ Wright EM, Turk E (2004). "The sodium/glucose cotransport family SLC5". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 510–518. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1063-6. PMID 12748858. 
  8. ^ Chen NH, Reith ME, Quick MW (2004). "Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 519–531. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1064-5. PMID 12719981. 
  9. ^ Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 532–542. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1086-z. PMID 14770310. 
  10. ^ Quednau BD, Nicoll DA, Philipson KD (2004). "The sodium/calcium exchanger family-SLC8". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 543–548. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1065-4. PMID 12734757. 
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  12. ^ Hagenbuch B, Dawson P (2004). "The sodium bile salt cotransport family SLC10". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 566–570. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1130-z. PMID 12851823. 
  13. ^ Mackenzie B, Hediger MA (2004). "SLC11 family of H+-coupled metal-ion transporters NRAMP1 and DMT1". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 571–579. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1141-9. PMID 14530973. 
  14. ^ Hebert SC, Mount DB, Gamba G (2004). "Molecular physiology of cation-coupled Cl- cotransport: the SLC12 family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 580–593. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1066-3. PMID 12739168. 
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  16. ^ Shayakul C, Hediger MA (2004). "The SLC14 gene family of urea transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 603–609. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1124-x. PMID 12856182. 
  17. ^ Daniel H, Kottra G (2004). "The proton oligopeptide cotransporter family SLC15 in physiology and pharmacology". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 610–618. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1101-4. PMID 12905028. 
  18. ^ Halestrap AP, Meredith D (2004). "The SLC16 gene family-from monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to aromatic amino acid transporters and beyond". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 619–628. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1067-2. PMID 12739169. 
  19. ^ Reimer RJ, Edwards RH (2004). "Organic anion transport is the primary function of the SLC17/type I phosphate transporter family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 629–635. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1087-y. PMID 12811560. 
  20. ^ Eiden LE, Schafer MK, Weihe E, Schutz B (2004). "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 636–640. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1100-5. PMID 12827358. 
  21. ^ Ganapathy V, Smith SB, Prasad PD (2004). "SLC19: the folate/thiamine transporter family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 641–646. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1068-1. PMID 14770311. 
  22. ^ Collins JF, Bai L, Ghishan FK (2004). "The SLC20 family of proteins: dual functions as sodium-phosphate cotransporters and viral receptors". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 641–646. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1088-x. PMID 12759754. 
  23. ^ Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ (2004). "Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic classification as OATP/ SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular/functional properties". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 653–665. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1168-y. PMID 14579113. 
  24. ^ Koepsell H, Endou H (2004). "The SLC22 drug transporter family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 666–676. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1089-9. PMID 12883891. 
  25. ^ Takanaga H, Mackenzie B, Hediger MA (2004). "Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporter family SLC23". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 677–682. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1104-1. PMID 12845532. 
  26. ^ Schnetkamp PP (2004). "The SLC24 Na+/Ca2+-K+ exchanger family: vision and beyond". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 683–688. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1069-0. PMID 14770312. 
  27. ^ Palmieri F (2004). "The mitochondrial transporter family (SLC25): physiological and pathological implications". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 689–709. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1099-7. PMID 14598172. 
  28. ^ Mount DB, Romero MF (2004). "The SLC26 gene family of multifunctional anion exchangers". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 710–721. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1090-3. PMID 12759755. 
  29. ^ Stahl A (2004). "A current review of fatty acid transport proteins (SLC27)". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 722–727. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1106-z. PMID 12856180. 
  30. ^ Gray JH, Owen RP, Giacomini KM (2004). "The concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 728–734. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1107-y. PMID 12856181. 
  31. ^ Baldwin SA, Beal PR, Yao SY, King AE, Cass CE, Young JD (2004). "The equilibrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC29". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 735–743. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1103-2. PMID 12838422. 
  32. ^ Palmiter RD, Huang L (2004). "Efflux and compartmentalization of zinc by members of the SLC30 family of solute carriers". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 744–751. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1070-7. PMID 12748859. 
  33. ^ Petris MJ (2004). "The SLC31 (Ctr) copper transporter family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 752–755. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1092-1. PMID 12827356. 
  34. ^ Gasnier B (2004). "The SLC32 transporter, a key protein for the synaptic release of inhibitory amino acids". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 752–755. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1091-2. PMID 12750892. 
  35. ^ Hirabayashi Y, Kanamori A, Nomura KH, Nomura K (2004). "The acetyl-CoA transporter family SLC33". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 760–762. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1071-6. PMID 12739170. 
  36. ^ Murer H, Forster I, Biber J (2004). "The sodium phosphate cotransporter family SLC34". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 763–767. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1072-5. PMID 12750889. 
  37. ^ Ishida N, Kawakita M (2004). "Molecular physiology and pathology of the nucleotide sugar transporter family (SLC35)". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 768–775. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1093-0. PMID 12759756. 
  38. ^ Boll M, Daniel H, Gasnier B (2004). "The SLC36 family: proton-coupled transporters for the absorption of selected amino acids from extracellular and intracellular proteolysis family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 776–779. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1073-4. PMID 12748860. 
  39. ^ Bartoloni L, Antonarakis SE (2004). "The human sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchanger family SLC37". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 780–783. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1105-0. PMID 12811562. 
  40. ^ Mackenzie B, Erickson JD (2004). "Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 784–795. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1117-9. PMID 12845534. 
  41. ^ Eide DJ (2004). "The SLC39 family of metal ion transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 796–800. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1074-3. PMID 12748861. 
  42. ^ McKie AT, Barlow DJ (2004). "The SLC40 basolateral iron transporter family (IREG1/ferroportin/MTP1)". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 801–806. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1102-3. PMID 12836025. 
  43. ^ Nakhoul NL, Hamm LL (2004). "Non-erythroid Rh glycoproteins: a putative new family of mammalian ammonium transporters". Pflugers Arch 447 (5): 807–812. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1142-8. PMID 12920597. 
  44. ^ Boron, W. F. (2010). "Sharpey-Schafer Lecture Gas channels". Experimental Physiology 95 (12): 1107–1130. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2010.055244. PMC 3003898. PMID 20851859.  edit

SLC Tables. http://slc.bioparadigms.org

External links[edit]