Somali Civil War
|Somali Civil War|
|Part of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa|
A Black Hawk helicopter, callsign Super 6-4, over the Mogadishu coast (1993)
Somali Democratic Republic (until 1991)
|Casualties and losses|
300,000 (TFG)-500,000+ (AFP) dead
The Somali Civil War is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the Siad Barre regime during the 1980s. By 1988–90, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups, including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, and the United Somali Congress in the south. This coalition of clan-based armed opposition groups eventually managed to overthrow the nation's long-standing military government in 1991.
Various factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed, which precipitated an aborted UN peacekeeping attempt in the mid-1990s. A period of decentralization ensued, characterized by a return to customary and religious law in many areas as well as the establishment of autonomous regional governments in the northern part of the country. This also led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with SIPRI removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for the years 1997 and 1998.
The early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations, culminating in the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004. In 2006, the TFG, assisted by Ethiopian troops, assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM intervention force for control of the country.
In 2011, a coordinated military operation between the Somali military and multinational forces began, which is believed to represent one of the final stages in the war's Islamist insurgency.
Fall of Barre regime (1986–1991)
After fallout from the unsuccessful Ogaden campaign of the late 1970s, the ruling socialist government of the Somali Democratic Republic under Major General Mohamed Siad Barre began arresting government and military officials under suspicion of participation in the abortive 1978 coup d'état. Most of the people who had allegedly helped plot the putsch were summarily executed. However, several officials managed to escape abroad where they formed the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), the first of various dissident groups dedicated to ousting Barre's regime by force.
In May 1986, Barre suffered serious injuries in a life-threatening automobile accident near Mogadishu, when the car that was transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm. He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month. Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar, then Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power. Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, who was at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar.
In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly authoritarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his regime to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, and exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.
In 1990, on the even of the civil war, Somalia's first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation. A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested. Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was to overthrow of his regime.
In December 1990, United Somali Congress (USC) militants secretly entered Mogadishu to lend support to fellow clan members who had formed popular committees to defend themselves from attacks by a rival clan of Barre supporters. The presence of the rebels in the capital prompted a military intervention by the Red Berets (Duub Cas), an elite unit that served as presidential bodyguards. Four weeks of battle between the Red Berets and USC guerrillas ensued, over the course of which the USC brought in more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels had managed to defeat the Red Berets, in the process toppling Barre's regime. The Somali National Army and all related military and security forces concurrently disbanded, with indeterminate elements reconstituted as irregular regional forces and clan militias. After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from their own constituencies. Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia. For its part, the SNM initially refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisional government that the USC had established. However, the SNM's former leader Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo later proposed a power-sharing framework in March 1991 between the SNM and USC under a new transitional government.
Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's regime. In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital. In the northwest, at the Burao conference of April-May 1991, SNM secessionists proclaimed independence for the region under the name Somaliland. They concurrently selected the SNM's leader Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as president.
United Nations intervention (1992–1995)
UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of UNOSOM I, the first mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on December 3, 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south. UNITAF's original mandate was to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.
During negotiations between themselves from 1993 to 1995, Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities. Among these initiatives was the Mudug peace agreement of June 1993 between Aidid's forces and the SSDF, which established a ceasefire between the Haber Gedir and the Majeerteen clans, opened the trade routes, and formalized the withdrawal of militants from Galkayo; the UNOSOM-mediated Hirab reconciliation of January 1994 in Mogadishu between elders of the rival Abgal and Haber Gedir clans, which was backed by politicians from these constituencies and concluded with a pact to end hostilities, dismantle the green line partitioning the city, and remove road blocks; the UNOSOM-mediated Kismayo initiative of 1994 between the SNA, SPM, SSDF, and representatives of nineteen clans from the southern Lower Juba and Middle Juba regions; the 1994 Bardhere conference between the Marehan and Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle), which resolved conflicts over local resources; and the short-lived Digil-Mirifle Governing Council for the southern Bay and Bakool regions, which was established in March 1995.
Some of the militias that were then competing for power saw UNOSOM's presence as a threat to their hegemony. Consequently, gun battles took place in Mogadishu between local gunmen and peacekeepers. Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu in October 1993, an unsuccessful attempt by U.S. troops to apprehend faction leader Aidid. UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on March 3, 1995, having incurred more significant casualties.
According to Interpeace, after UNOSOM's departure in March 1995, military clashes between local factions became shorter, generally less intense, and more localized. This was in part due to the large-scale UN military intervention that had helped to curb the intense fighting between the major factions, who then began to focus on consolidating gains that they had made. The local peace and reconciliation initiatives that had been undertaken in the south-central part of the country between 1993 and 1995 also generally had a positive impact.
Aidid subsequently declared himself President of Somalia on June 15, 1995. However, his declaration received no recognition, as his rival Ali Mahdi Muhammad had already been elected interim President at a conference in Djibouti and recognized as such by the international community.
Consequently, Aidid's faction continued its quest for hegemony in the south. In September 1995, militia forces loyal to him attacked and occupied the city of Baidoa. Aidid's forces remained in control of Baidoa from September 1995 to at least January 1996, while the local Rahanweyn Resistance Army militia continued to engage his forces in the town's environs.
Fighting continued in the later half of 1995 in southern Kismayo and the Juba Valley, as well as southwestern and central Somalia. However, despite these pockets of conflict, the Gedo and Middle Shabelle regions, in addition to both the northeastern and northwestern parts of the country remained relatively peaceful. A number of the regional and district administrations that had been locally established in the preceding few years continued to operate in these areas.
In March 1996, Ali Mahdi was elected chairman of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA), based in northern Mogadishu. In the southern part of city, Aidid's forces battled those of Osman Atto for control of the port of Merca as well as strategic areas in Mogadishu. Fighting in Merca eventually ended after elders intervened, but continued in Mogadishu. In August 1996, Aidid died from wounds incurred during combat in the Medina area.
In 1998, a homegrown constitutional conference was held in the northeastern town of Garowe over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was subsequently officially established so as to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with both domestic and international partners.
In 1999, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army took control of the southern Bay and Bakool. It subsequently established the Southwestern State of Somalia regional administration.
The TFG, Islamic Courts Union, and Ethiopia (2006–2009)
The early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations, with the Transitional National Government (TNG) established in 2000. After a two-year consultation process, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as President. The TFG thereafter became Somalia's internationally recognized government.
In the first half of 2005, disagreements arose between Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi and Parliament Speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden over where to base the TFG. Ghedi preferred Jowhar while Adan favored Baidoa. In an effort to persuade President Yusuf, Adan and a group of legislators and ministers visited Mogadishu to mobilize support from the local business community. The two leaders, President Yusuf and members of parliament also met in Kenya to work out a compromise. Concurrently, the TFG sent official delegations to Jowhar and Baidoa to assess the suitability of each city as a temporary headquarters for the TFG before an eventual relocation of government offices to Mogadishu. In June–July 2005, the Transitional Federal Government established an interim seat in Jowhar due to ongoing insecurity in the capital. The TFG later moved its temporary headquarters to Baidoa.
In order to stabilize the security situation, President Yusuf requested that the African Union deploy military forces in Somalia. However, as the AU lacked the resources to do so over the short term, Ahmed enlisted soldiers from his own constituency. Ethiopia concurrently provided military training for the new troops. These developments along with the U.S. funding the ARPCT coalition of faction leaders alarmed many individuals in south-central Somalia, and provided the ascendant Islamic Courts Union (ICU) with substantial recruitment opportunities.
A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT confronted the ICU. However, with local support, the ICU captured the city in June of the year. It then expanded its area of control in south-central Somalia over the following months, assisted militarily by Eritrea. In an effort at reconciliation, TFG and ICU representatives held several rounds of talks in Khartoum under the auspices of the Arab League. The meetings ended unsuccessfully due to uncompromising positions retained by both parties. Hardline Islamists subsequently gained power within the ICU, prompting fears of a Talibanization of the movement.
In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union, initally winning the Battle of Baidoa. On December 28, 2006, the allied forces recaptured the capital from the ICU. The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule. Ethiopian and TFG forces forced the ICU from Ras Kamboni between January 7–12, 2007. They were assisted by at least two U.S. air strikes. On January 8, 2007, for the first time since taking office, President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu from Baidoa to engage in consultations with local business, religious and civil society representatives as the TFG moved its base to the national capital. The interim administration had just established control over much of the central and southern parts of the country. Government members and officials from the International Contact Group on Somalia conurrently began planning broad-based reconciliation talks, deployment of a peacekeeping force, disarmament, and a national development strategy. According to AMISOM, the TFG gained widespread acceptance and made significant progress in the areas of political institutionalization.
In Mogadishu, residents belonging to the same Hawiye clan as the ousted ICU resented the change in power. They also felt threatened by the TFG, which they perceived to be dominated by the Darod clan, and were dismayed by Ethiopian involvement. Critics of the TFG likewise charged that its federalist platform was part of a plot by the Ethiopian government to keep Somalia weak and divided. According to the ISA, a coalition of local insurgents led by Al-Shabaab consequently launched a wave of attacks against the TFG and Ethiopian troops. The allied forces in return mounted a heavy-handed counter-insurgency. HRW alleged that all of the warring parties were responsible for widespread violations of the laws of war, as civilians were caught in the ensuing crossfire. Insurgents reportedly deployed militants and established strongholds in heavily populated neighborhoods, launched mortar rounds from residential areas, and targeted public and private individuals for assassination and violence. Although TFG forces played a secondary role to the Ethiopian troops, they were in turn alleged to have failed to efficaciously warn civilians in combat zones, impeded relief efforts, plundered property, and mistreated detainees during mass arrests. Ethiopian forces were similarly reported to have indiscriminately fired mortars, rockets and artillery shells into densely populated areas, looted property, and in some instances shot and executed civilians.
In February 2007, the arms embargo on Somalia was amended to allow states to supply weapons to the TFG's security forces, provided that they received prior approval from the UN's Somalia Sanctions Committee. After long discussions, the African Union approved the initial deployment of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) in March 2007, with a mandate to facilitate the re-constitution of Somalia's security forces. It established a small area of protection around Mogadishu's airport, seaport, and Villa Somalia, and began to adopt a low-key negotiating profile with key actors. In November 2008, following repeated violations of the weapons blockade, the Security Council decided that an arms embargo could be imposed on entities involved in such breaches.
Following their defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. On May 1, 2008, the U.S. made an airstrike on Dhusamareb, and followed on 3 May with an another airstrike on the border town of Dobley. Aording to the International Crisis Group, Ethiopia's leaders were surprised by the insurgency's persistence and strength and frustrated at the TFG's chronic internal problems. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an understaffed African Union peacekeeping force.
Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.
On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do. He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the Charter of the Transitional Federal Government.
Between May 31 and June 9, 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.
With the help of AMISOM, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia. Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.
As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system. However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.
War in Somalia (2009–present)
In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. Among these, in its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces, aimed to take place within a window of four months.
On August 6, 2011, Al-Shabaab was forced to withdraw from most areas of Mogadishu. Somali government forces and their AMISOM allies subsequently launched offensives in January 2012 on the insurgent group's last foothold on the northern outskirts of the city. An ideological rift within Al-Shabaab's leadership also emerged after the 2011 drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization.
In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Somali and Kenyan military officials in the town of Dhobley, a coordinated operation between the Somali Armed Forces and the Kenya Defence Forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia. The cross-border incursion had reportedly taken nearly two years of planning, during which Kenyan officials had sought U.S. support. The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role. In early June 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM.
In late September and early October 2012, Somali government troops, AMISOM's Kenyan contingent, and the allied Raskamboni militia captured the strategic town of Kismayo from Al-Shabaab. The southern city was a key source of revenue for the insurgent group and constituted its last major stronghold.
By November 2012, around 85 percent of the disputed territory in Somalia was under government control according to UN Special Representative for Somalia Augustine Mahiga. An eventual exit date for the AMISOM troops would also be finalized once the Somali security and police forces were adequately trained and prepared.
In January 2013, AMISOM's mandate was extended for another year following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093. The 15-member UN Security Council therein also unanimously voted to suspend Somalia's arms embargo on light weapons for a one year period. Additionally, the Security Council welcomed the Federal Government's development of a new national security strategy, urging the central authorities to accelerate the plan's implementation, further define the Somali national security forces' composition, and identify capability gaps to assist their international partners in better addressing them.
According to Laura Hammond of the School of Oriental and African Studies, the federal government assisted by AMISOM had concurrently managed to re-capture all of Somalia's major urban centers. However, Al-Shabaab still controlled many rural areas, where a number of their operatives had reportedly disappeared into local communities in order to more effectively exploit any mistakes by the central authorities.
In October 2013, the U.S. military began establishing the Mogadishu Coordinating Cell in the Somali capital, which became fully operational in late December. The unit was formed at the request of the Somali government and AMISOM, who had approached U.S. Department of Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in September about the possibility. It consists of a small team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between the Somali authorities and AMISOM. The cell is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces in order to enhance their capacity and to promote peace and security throughout the country and wider region.
In November 2013, a senior Ethiopian government official announced that Ethiopia's troops deployed in Somalia would soon join AMISOM, having already forwarded a request to do so. At the time, an estimated 8,000 Ethiopian sodiers were stationed in the country. The Somali Foreign Ministry welcomed the decision, asserting that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against Al-Shabaab.
Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2124, which authorized the deployment of 4,000 additional troops to augment AMISOM's 22,126 strong force, Ethiopian troops formally joined the mission in January 2014. They are mandated to work alongside the Somali National Army, with responsibility for the allied forces' operations in the southern Gedo, Bakool and Bay regions. The Ethiopian troops represent AMISOM's sixth contingent after the Djibouti, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda units.
In January 2014, at an African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud requested an extension of the UN Security Council's weapons purchasing mandate for Somalia after its March expiration. He indicated that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants. The following month, the UN Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group released a report alleging that systematic abuses by officials within the Somali government had allowed weapons to be diverted away from Somalia's security forces and into the hands of faction leaders and Al-Shabaab militants. The panel asserted that it had observed various issues and concerns surrounding the management of weapons and ammunition stockpiles, including difficulties by monitors in accessing local weapons stockpiles and in obtaining information about the arms. While conceding that the monitoring panel's limited data made it impossible to quantify the scale of the alleged weapons stock diversion, the monitors also suggested that one key adviser to the president was involved in planning arms deliveries to Al-Shabaab and that shipments of weapons from Djibouti and Uganda could not be accounted for. Somali Chief of Army Dahir Adan Elmi denied the allegations, asserting that no public officials had sold or diverted weapons and that the arms were instead in safe custody. He also indicated that a UN monitoring team had twice visited the government's weapons and ammunition storage facilities in Mogadishu, where it was shown the arms stockpiles for inspection and had reportedly expressed satisfaction. Additionally, the Commander stated that the government had twice purchased weapons since the arms embargo on Somalia was partially lifted. Elmi also asserted that Al-Shabaab already possessed an adequate supply of weapons and mainly utilized explosive devices and sophisticated bombs. He likewise suggested that the Monitoring Group had fabricated its allegations in an effort to impede the functionality of the Somali government and military, while attempting to raise funds for its own activities by trying to keep Al-Shabaab an indefinite concern.
In February 2014, a delegation led by Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed met in Addis Ababa with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn to discuss strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries. Ahmed commended Ethiopia's role in the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia as well as its support against Al-Shabaab, and welcomed the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM. Hailemariam Desalegn in turn pledged his administration's continued support for the peace and stabilization efforts in Somalia, as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up the Somali security forces through experience-sharing and training. The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation, including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force, a second cooperative agreement covering the information field, and a third cooperative agreement on the aviation sector.
On 5 March 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend the partial easing of the arms embargo on Somalia until 25 October of the year. The resolution permits the Somali government to purchase light weapons, with the stipulation that all member states must take steps to prevent the direct or indirect supply, transfer or sale of arms and military equipment to individuals or entities outside of the Somali security forces. The Somali government is also required to routinely report on the structural status of the military, as well as provide information on the extant infrastructure and protocols designed to ensure the military equipment's safe delivery, storage and maintenance.
- Consolidation of states within Somalia (1998–2006)
- Factions in the Somali Civil War
- Mogadishu Line
- List of conflicts in the Horn of Africa
- Kenya: Seven Oromo Liberation Front Fighters Held in Garissa Allafrica.com (Daily Nation), January 6, 2007
- "Somalia signs deal with militia – Africa". Al Jazeera English. March 16, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides". Users.erols.com. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- c.f. UCDP datasets for SNA, SRRC, USC, SNM, ARS/UIC and Al-Shabaab tolls.
- UCDP non-state conflict tolls
- Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 73.
- Legum, Colin (1989). Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, Volume 20. Africa Research Limited. p. B-394.
- Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 73.
- Bongartz, Maria (1991). The civil war in Somalia: its genesis and dynamics. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. p. 24.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- In 2007, Menkhaus wrote that '..armed conflict in Somalia has generally subsided since the early 1990s. Armed clashes continue to break out, but are nowhere near the scale and intensity of the fighting that destroyed Hargeisa in 1988-89 or Mogadishu in 1992-92. Menkhaus, FSIP, 2007, 75.
- Heinlein, Peter (October 22, 2011). "E. African Nations Back Kenyan Offensive in Somalia". Voice of America. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.
- Ahmed III, Abdul. "Brothers in Arms Part I". WardheerNews. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- New People Media Centre, New people, Issues 94–105, (New People Media Centre: Comboni Missionaries, 2005).
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.
- World of Information (Firm), Africa review, (World of Information: 1987), p.213.
- Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, William Overstreet, Political Handbook of the World 2008, (CQ Press: 2008), p.1198.
- National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). Committee on Human Rights, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Health and Human Rights, Scientists and human rights in Somalia: report of a delegation, (National Academies: 1988), p.9.
- "Somalia — Government". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Bloomfield, Steve (June 11, 2007). "Aden Abdulle Osman — First President of Somalia". The Independent. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
- Horn of Africa Bulletin, Volumes 3-4. Life & Peace Institute. 1991. p. 14.
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19.
- Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 187420991X.
- Silanyo, Ahmed M. "A Proposal to the Somali National Movement: On a Framework for a Transitional Government in Somalia". Wardheernews. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Library Information and Research Service, The Middle East: Abstracts and index, Volume 2, (Library Information and Research Service: 1999), p.327.
- Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 13-14.
- Clancy, Tom; Tony Zinni, Tony Koltz (2005). Battle Ready:Study in Command Commander Series. Penguin. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-0-425-19892-6.
- Ken Rutherford, Humanitarianism Under Fire: The US and UN Intervention in Somalia, Kumarian Press, July 2008, ISBN 1-56549-260-9
- "United Nations Operation In Somalia I – (Unosom I)". United Nations. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- See also Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia, S/1995/231 (March 28, 1995).
- "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia (S/1996/42)". January 19, 1996. Retrieved February 14, 2014., page 2, paragraph 7.
- Djibouti Conference.
- Associated Press (September 19, 1995). "Aidid troops kill Somalis, capture city". The Register-Guard. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- S/1996/42, 26, 27, 28, 29
- Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia, S/1997/135, February 17, 1997, paragraphs 6,7, and 9. For later occurrences 1997 to 2000, see S/1997/715, S/1999/882, and S/2000/1211 (December 19, 2000).
- Somalia: Puntland's Experience in Peace-building and State-building
- "August 2000 - Somalia". Rulers. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "Background and Political Developments". AMISOM. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows and conflict in Somalia". SIPRI. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- "Somalis Support Museveni On 'African Solution'". Somaliweyn. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 60–61.
- "Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the outcomes of the Fact-finding/Reconnaissance Mission to Somalia and the IGAD military planning meetings". African Union. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Transitional government relocates to Jowhar, Central Somalia". UNICEF. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. August 14, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 67.
- "Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed". News.xinhuanet.com. December 29, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 26.
- Majtenyi, Cathy (8 January 2007). "Somali President in Capital for Consultations". VOA. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Power vacuum in Somalia as factions fight". Garowe Online. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Menkhaus, Ken. "Somalia: What Went Wrong?". The Rusi Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "Somalia comes full circle". ISA. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Leggiere, Phil. "Somalia: The Next Challenge - Homeland Security Today". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Interpeace, May 2009, 61.
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 25.
- "USCIRF Annual Report 2009 - The Commission's Watch List: Somalia". USCIRF. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Somalia: Guide to Puntland Election 2009". Garoweonline.com. December 25, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- "Opening Annual General Assembly Debate, Secretary-General Urges Member States to Press in Tackling Poverty, Terrorism, Human Rights Abuses, Conflicts". Unis.unvienna.org. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- "Somalia's president quits office", BBC News, December 29, 2008.
- "Somali President Yusuf resigns", Reuters (FT.com), December 29, 2008.
- Kamaal says: (May 22, 2010). "UN boss urges support for Somalia ahead of Istanbul summit". Horseedmedia.net. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- "Islamists break Somali port truce". BBC News. October 21, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- Shariah in Somalia – Arab News
- Online, Garowe (January 12, 2011). "Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Garoweonline.com. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- "Security Council Meeting on Somalia". Somaliweyn.org.
- "Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu". Somalia Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Chothia, Farouk (August 9, 2011). "Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab?". BBC.
- Kenya launches offensive in Somalia
- "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke.
- "Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi". Kenya High Commission, Tanzania. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Azikiwe, Abayomi (January 4, 2012). "Leaked cables confirm U.S. role in Somalia war". Pan-African News Wire. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- Chonghaile, Clar Ni (September 28, 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". The Guardian. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "Call to bolster Somalia mission". The Hindu. November 2, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093". S/RES/2093 (2013), March 6, 2013
- Hammond, Laura (2013). "Somalia rising: things are starting to change for the world's longest failed state". Journal of Eastern African Studies 7 (1): 183–193. doi:10.1080/17531055.2012.755316. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "U.S. military advisers deployed to Somalia to help African forces". Reuters. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Martinez, Luis (January 10, 2014). "U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down". ABC News. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (November 12, 2013). "Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- Ali, Hassan (November 12, 2013). "Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration". Dalsan Radio. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "Comment on Ethiopian troops formally join AMISOM peacekeepers in Somalia". Foreign Affairs. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "Ethiopian Forces formally integrated into AMISOM". AMISOM. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "Mohamud wants UN to extend weapons purchasing mandate". Sabahi. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Somalia diverting arms to al-Shabab, UN report claims". BBC News. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Somali Government official denies U.N arms diversion allegations". Horseed Media. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Federal government of Somalia denies the report issued by UN monitoring group". Goobjoog. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "SOMALIA: Military chief says UN Monitoring Group wants Al Shabab to become an endless project". Raxanreeb. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Ethiopia: The Prime Minister of Somalia On a Visit to Ethiopia". Government of Ethiopia. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "UN Security Council Extends Arms Embargo lift on Somalia to eight months". Horseed Media. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Charbonneau, Louis (6 March 2014). "U.N. extends partial easing of Somalia arms embargo to October". Reuters. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Afyare Abdi Elmi. Understanding the Somalia conflagration: Identity, political Islam and peacebuilding. Pluto Press, 2010.
- I. M. Lewis. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002. vii + 347 pp. $24.95 (paper), ISBN 978-0-8214-1495-8.
- Jutta Bakonyi. Authority and administration beyond the state: local governance in southern Somalia, 1995–2006, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2013.
- Ken Menkhaus. Somalia: State collapse and the threat of terrorism. Adelphi Papers No. 364, Routledge, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Somali Civil War.|
- Somalia's Struggle for Stability from The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
- Somali – U.S. Relations from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
- Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned by Kenneth Allard (CCRP, 1995)
- "Preserving American Security Ties to Somalia," by Michael Johns, Heritage Foundation, December 26, 1989.
- Changed Arab attitudes to Somalia Conflict
- ISAAQ Genocide in Somalia on the Combat Genocide Association website
- Security Council Report, United Nations Sanctions Committee on Somalia: Documents