Somatostatinoma is a tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin.
It is associated with diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance.
Triad of : Mild diabetes mellitus, steatorrhoea, gall stones. also associated with hypochlorhydria.
Commonly found in head of pancreas, and are malignant.
Elevated plasma levels of Somatostatin.
Main article: Somatostatin
in a normal subject actions of somatostatin include:
- In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are:
- Lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine
- Suppresses the release of pancreatic hormones
- Suppresses the exocrine secretory action of pancreas.
This explaining how abnormally elevated somatostatin can cause diabetes mellitus, by inhibiting insulin secretion, steatorrhoea by inhibiting cholecystokinin and secretin, gall stones by inhibiting cholecystokinin which normally induce gallbladder myocytes contraction, and hypochlorhydria caused by inhibiting gastrin, which normally stimulate acid secretion.
Somatostatinomas are associated with calcium deposits called psammoma bodies.
Treatment is by chemotherapy with streptozocin, dacarbazine, doxorubicin or by 'watchful waiting' and surgical de bulking via whipple and other resections of the gastrointestinal organs affected.