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A somersault (obsolete French word sombresault, Occitan sobresaut; and Latin - supra, over, and saltus, jump, and in gymnastics a Salto) is an acrobatic exercise in which a person's body revolves 360° with feet passing over the head. A somersault can be performed either forwards, backwards, or sideways and can be executed in the air or on the ground. When performed on the ground it is normally called a roll.
Types of somersault
There are many variations of front and back somersaults. Somersaults can be performed in multiples, or multiples of quarter body revolutions, in some cases with additional twist rotations or ending in body landings, producing variations such as:
- Crash dive (3/4 front somersault to back landing)
- Lazy back (3/4 back somersault to front landing)
- Ballout (11⁄4 front somersault to feet from back landing)
- Cody (11⁄4 back somersault to feet from front landing)
- Barani (front somersault with 1/2 twist)
- Rudolph (or Rudi) (front somersault with 11⁄2 twists)
- Randolph (or Randi) (front somersault with 21⁄2 twists)
- Adolf (or Adi) (front somersault with 31⁄2 twists)
- Full back or frontfull (back somersault or front somersault with 1 twist) less common with single fronts
- Double (double front or back somersault)
- Triple (triple front or back somersault)
- Arabian (half-in, front somersault)
- Arabian Double (half-in, double front somersault)
- Double full (back somersault with 2 twists)
- Triple full (back somersault with 3 twists)
- Quadruple full (back somersault with 4 twists)
- Half out (double front somersault with 1/2 twist in the second somersault)
- Back in - full out (double back somersault with 1 twist in the second somersault)
- Full In (double back somersault with 1/2 twist in the first somersault and 1/2 twist in the second somersault)
- Full In - half out (double back somersault with extra 1/2 twist in the second somersault)
- Double Double (double back somersault with 1 twist in both somersaults)
- Triple Double (double back somersault with 1 1/2 twists in both somersaults)
The names and nomenclature used for somersaults varies among different sports and activities, as well as regionally. In competitive gymnastics and trampolining, standardized names have been assigned to all common variations, which may be performed in tucked, piked, or straight body orientations. Within British gymnastic associations, a crash dive is referred to as a 3/4 front somersault (straight). Similarly, a Barani Ballout is referred to as a Ballout Barani to indicate that the forward somersault is executed before the twist.
The word flip is synonymous with an airborne somersault in a number of countries.[not in citation given] In contrast, in Britain and some other countries, a flip must rely on the arms to induce body revolution, and the body need not be completely airborne (hands may contact the floor).
The word somerset was also used in Victorian England to describe what today is called a somersault. For example, an 1843 poster advertising Pablo Fanque's Circus Royal boasts, "Mr. HENDERSON will undertake the arduous Task of THROWING TWENTY-ONE SOMERSETS, ON THE SOLID GROUND.
- http://www2.usa-gymnastics.org/education/gymnastics/glossary.html, American Gymnastic Terminology