Somnath

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Somnath Temple
સોમનાથ મંદિર
Somnathtempledawn.JPG
Somnath Templeસોમનાથ મંદિર is located in Gujarat
Somnath Templeસોમનાથ મંદિર
Somnath Temple
સોમનાથ મંદિર
Location within Gujarat
Name
Proper name Somnath Mandir
Devanagari सोमनाथ मन्दिर
Geography
Coordinates 20°53′16.9″N 70°24′5.0″E / 20.888028°N 70.401389°E / 20.888028; 70.401389Coordinates: 20°53′16.9″N 70°24′5.0″E / 20.888028°N 70.401389°E / 20.888028; 70.401389
Country India
State Gujarat
District Gir Somnath
Locale Veraval
Culture
Primary deity Somnath (Shiva)
Important festivals Maha Shivaratri
Architecture
Architectural styles Mandir
History and governance
Date built 1951 (present structure)
Creator Vallabhbhai Patel (present structure)
Temple board Shree Somnath Trust of Gujarat
Website somnath.org

The Somnath Temple (Gujarati: સોમનાથ મંદિર) located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is the first among the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of the god Shiva. It has currently become a tourist spot for pilgrims. The temple is considered sacred due to the various legends connected to it. Somnath means "Lord of the Soma", an epithet of Shiva.

Somnath Temple is known as "the Shrine Eternal", having been destroyed many times by Islamic kings and rulers.[1] Most recently it was rebuilt in November 1947, when Vallabhbhai Patel visited the area for the integration of Junagadh and mooted a plan for restoration. After Patel's death, the rebuilding continued under Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, another minister of the Government of India.[2][3]

The temple is open from 0600-2100. There are 3 aarti daily; in the morning at 0700, at 1200 and in the evening at 1900.

History[edit]

Legend[edit]

In the Shiva Purana, once Brahma and Vishnu had an argument in terms of the supremacy of creation.[4] To test them, Shiva pierced the three worlds as a huge endless pillar of light, the jyotirlinga. Vishnu and Brahma split their ways to downwards and upwards respectively to find the end of the light in either directions. Brahma lied that he found out the end, while Vishnu conceded his defeat. Shiva appeared as a second pillar of light and cursed Brahma that he would have no place in ceremonies while Vishnu would be worshipped till the end of eternity. The jyotirlinga is the supreme partless reality, out of which Shiva partly appears. The jyotirlinga shrines, thus are places where Shiva appeared as a fiery column of light.[5][6] Originally there were believed to be 64 jyotirlingas while 12 of them are considered to be very auspicious and holy.[4] Each of the twelve jyotirlinga sites take the name of the presiding deity - each considered different manifestation of Shiva.[7] At all these sites, the primary image is lingam representing the beginningless and endless Stambha pillar, symbolizing the infinite nature of Shiva] .[7][8][9] The twelve jyotirlinga are Somnath Temple in Gujarat, Mallikarjuna Swamy at Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh, Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga at Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh; Omkareshwar in Madhya Pradesh; Kedarnath Temple, Uttarakhand; Bhimashankar Temple, Maharashtra; Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh; Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple, Maharastra; Baidyanath Temple, Deoghar, Jharkhand; Nageshvara Jyotirlinga, Dwarka, Gujarat; Ramanathaswamy Temple, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu; and Grishneshwar, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.[4][10]

Timeline[edit]

The second temple, built by the Seuna kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat, replaced the first one on the same site around 649 CE. In 725 CE, Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri, the Arab Muslim governor of Sind, sent his army and destroyed the second temple.[11] The Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata II constructed the third temple in 815, a large structure of red sandstone.

Somnath temple, 1869

In 1024, the temple was destroyed by the Muslim prominent ruler, Mahmud of Ghazni,[12][13] who raided the temple from across the Thar Desert. The temple was rebuilt by the Paramara king Bhoja of Malwa and the Solanki king Bhimdev I of Anhilwara (now Patan) between 1026 and 1042. The wooden structure was replaced by Kumarpal (r.1143-72), who built the temple of stone.[14][15]

In 1296, the temple was once again destroyed by Alauddin Khilji's army,[12][15] and Raja Karan of Gujarat was defeated and forced to flee. According to Taj-ul-Ma'sir of Hasan Nizami, the Sultan boasted that "fifty thousand infidels were dispatched to hell by the sword" and "more than twenty thousand slaves, and cattle beyond all calculation fell into the hands of the victors".

The temple was rebuilt by Mahipala Deva, the Chudasama king of Saurashtra in 1308 and the Linga was installed by his son Khengar sometime between 1326 and 1351.[15] In 1375, the temple was once again destroyed by Muzaffar Shah I of the Gujarat Sultanate.[15] In 1451, the temple was once again destroyed by Mahmud Begada, the Sultan of Gujarat.[12][15]

By 1665, the temple, one of many, was once again ordered destroyed by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.[16] Later the temple was rebuilt to its same glory adjacent to the ruined one. Later on a joint effort of Peshwa of Pune, Raja Bhonsle of Nagpur, Chhatrapati Bhonsle of Kolhapur, Queen Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore & Shrimant Patilbuwa Shinde of Gwalior rebuilt the temple in 1783 at a site adjacent to the ruined temple.

Reconstruction of the Somnath Temple[edit]

Before independence, Prabhas Patan was part of the princely state of Junagadh, whose ruler had acceded to Pakistan in 1947. After India refused to accept his decision, the state was made a part of India and Deputy Prime Minister Patel came to Junagadh on 12 November 1947 to direct the stabilization of the state by the Indian Army and at the same time ordered the reconstruction of the Somanath temple.[17]

When Patel, K. M. Munshi and other leaders of the Congress went to Mahatma Gandhi with their proposal to reconstruct the Somnath temple, Gandhi blessed the move, but suggested that the funds for the construction should be collected from the public and the temple should not be funded by the state. He expressed that he was proud to associate himself to the project of renovation of the temple[18] However, soon both Gandhi and Sardar Patel died and the task of reconstruction of the temple continued under Munshi, who was the Minister for Food and Civil Supplies in the Nehru Government.[18]

The ruins were pulled down in October 1950 and the mosque present at that site was shifted few kilometres away.[19] of In May 1951, Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the Republic of India, invited by K M Munshi, performed the installation ceremony for the temple.[20] Rajendra Prasad said in his address "It is my view that the reconstruction of the Somnath Temple will be complete on that day when not only a magnificent edifice will arise on this foundation, but the mansion of India's prosperity will be really that prosperity of which the ancient temple of Somnath was a symbol.".[21] He added "The Somnath temple signifies that the power of reconstruction is always greater than the power of destruction"[21]


The present temple, which was built by Patel and Munshi, is managed by Shree Somnath Trust.

Architecture[edit]

sanctum sanctorum of the temple
Arrow Pillar or Baan-Stambh

The present temple is built in the Chalukya style of temple architecture or Kailash Mahameru Prasad Style[22] and reflects the skill of the Sompura Salats, one of Gujarat's master masons. The temple's shikhara, or main spire, is 15 metres in height, and it has an 8.2-metre tall flag pole at the top.[22]

The temple is situated at such a place that there is no land in straight-line between Somnath seashore till Antarctica, such an inscription in Sanskrit is found on the Arrow-Pillar called Baan-Stambh erected on the sea-protection wall at the Somnath Temple. This Baan-Stambh mentions that it stands at a point on the Indian landmass, which happens to be the first point on land in the north to the south-pole on that particular longitude.[23]

'Proclamation of the Gates' Incident[edit]

In 1782-83 AD, Maratha king Mahadaji Shinde, victoriously brought the Three Silver Gates from Lahore after defeating Muhammad Shah of Lahore. After refusal from Pundits of Guzrath and the then ruler Gaekwad to put them back on Somnath temple, these silver gates were placed in the temples of Ujjain. Today they can be seen in two temples of India, Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga and Gopal Mandir of Ujjain.[24]

In 1842, Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough issued his famous Proclamation of the Gates, in which he ordered the British army in Afghanistan to return via Ghazni and bring back to India the sandalwood gates from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni in Ghazni, Afghanistan. These were believed to have been taken by Mahmud from Somnath. There was a debate in the House of Commons in London in 1843 on the question of the gates of the Somanatha temple.[25] After much crossfire between the British Government and the opposition, the gates were uprooted and brought back in triumph. But on arrival, they were found to be replicas of the original.[24] They were placed in a store-room in the Agra Fort where they still lie to the present day.

In the 19th century novel The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins, the diamond of the title is presumed to have been stolen from the temple at Somnath and, according to the historian Romila Thapar, reflects the interest aroused in Britain by the gates.[26]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thapar 2004
  2. ^ Gopal, Ram (1994). Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 148. ISBN 81-85880-26-3. 
  3. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu nationalist movement and Indian politics: 1925 to the 1990s. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 1-85065-170-1. 
  4. ^ a b c Venugopalam 2003, pp. 92–95
  5. ^ Eck 1999, p. 107
  6. ^ See: Gwynne 2008, Section on Char Dham
  7. ^ a b Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 324-325
  8. ^ Harding 1998, pp. 158-158
  9. ^ Vivekananda Vol. 4
  10. ^ Chaturvedi 2006, pp. 58-72
  11. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History, (ABC-CLIO, 2014), 547.
  12. ^ a b c "Somnath Temple". Gujarat State Portal. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  13. ^ Elliot, Sir Henry Miers (1952). The history of India, as told by his own historian Beirouni. 11. Elibron.com. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-543-94726-0. 
  14. ^ "Somnath Temple". British Library. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Temples of India. Prabhat Prakashan. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  16. ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals, (Har-Anand, 2009), 278.
  17. ^ Hindustan Times, 15 Nov, 1947
  18. ^ a b Marie Cruz Gabriel, Rediscovery of India, A silence in the city and other stories, Published by Orient Blackswan, 1996, ISBN 81-250-0828-4, ISBN 978-81-250-0828-6
  19. ^ Mir Jaffar Barkriwala, The Glorious Destruction of Hindoo Temples in Kathiawar and their replacement, Ul Akbari Publications, Bharuch, 1902
  20. ^ Peter Van der Veer, Ayodhya and Somnath, eternel shrines, contested histories, 1992
  21. ^ a b Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Indian constitutional documents,Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967
  22. ^ a b "Shree Somnath Trust :: Jay Somnath". Somnath.org. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "Somnath Temple - ~ Fun With Best Friends ~". Indianfriendhood.in. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "Mosque and Tomb of the Emperor Sultan Mahmood of Ghuznee". British Library. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  25. ^ The United Kingdom House of Commons Debate, 9 March 1943, on The Somnath (Prabhas Patan) Proclamation, Junagadh 1948. 584-602, 620, 630-32, 656, 674.
  26. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 170

References[edit]

External links[edit]