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^Hy V. Luong Tradition, Revolution, and Market Economy in a North Vietnamese Village 2010 Page 307 "In Sơn Dương, many of the non-Buddhist deities — mẫu thượng thiên (goddess of the upper sky), mẫu thượng ngàn (goddess of the highlands), mẫu Thoải (goddess of water), Hắc hổ (black tigers), etc.—were worshipped in the house for ..."