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Sonargaon (Bengali: সোনারগাঁও; also transcribed as Sunārgāon, meaning City of Gold) was a historic administrative, commercial and maritime center in Bengal. Situated at the heart of Ganges delta, near the old course of the Brahmaputra River, it was the seat of the medieval Muslim rulers and governors of eastern Bengal. Sonargaon was described by numerous historic travellers, including Ibn Battuta, Ma Huan, Niccolò de' Conti and Ralph Fitch, as a thriving center of trade and commerce on the silk route. It served as the capital of Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Isa Khan and the Baro-Bhuyan Confederacy.
Pre-Muslim period 
The name Sonargaon came as the Bangla version of the ancient name Suvarnagrama. Hindu ruler Danujamadhava Dasharathadeva shifted his capital to Suvarnagrama from Bikrampur sometime in the middle of the 13th century. In early 14th century, Hindu ruling in this area ended when Shamsuddin Firoz Shah (reigned 1301–1322) of Lakhnauti occupied and annexed it to his kingdom.
Muslim period 
Muslim settlers first arrive in Sonargaon region in around 1281. Sharfuddin Abu Tawwamah, a medieval Sufi saint and Islamic philosopher came and settled here sometime between 1282 and 1287. He then established his Khanqah and founded a Madrasa.
Firoz Shah built a mint in Sonargaon from where a large number of coins were issued. When he died in 1322, his son, Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah, replaced him as the ruler. In 1324 Delhi Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, declared war against him and after the battle, Bahadur Shah was captured and Bengal, including Sonargaon, became a province of Delhi Sultanate. The same year, Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq, son and successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, released him and appointed him as the governor of Sonargaon province.
After 4 years of governorship, in 1328, Bahadur Shah declared independence of Bengal. Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his general, Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon for the Delhi Sultanate and he was also appointed the governor of Sonargaon.
When Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armor-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon. Fakhruddin sponsored several construction projects, including a trunk road and raised embankments, along with mosques and tombs. 14th century Moroccan traveller, Ibn Batuta, after visiting the capital in 1346, described Fakhruddin as "a distinguished sovereign who loved strangers, particularly the fakirs and sufis". After the death of Fakhruddin in 1349, Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah became the next independent ruler of Sonargaon.
Ilyas Shah, the independent ruler of Lakhnauti, attacked Sonargaon in 1352. After defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah, he became the sole ruler of whole Bengal for the first time in history and thus he became the founder of a sultanate of the unified Bengal.
It is thought[by whom?] that when a squadron of the Chinese fleet of Zheng He, commanded by the eunuch Hong Bao, visited Bengal in 1432, they visited Sonargaon as well. The information about that expedition comes from the book of one of its participants, the translator Ma Huan.
Sonargaon is the eastern terminus of the Grand Trunk Road, which was built by the Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri, extended approximately 2500 kilometres from Bangladesh across northern India and Pakistan to Kabul in Afghanistan.
Isa Khan's ruling 
When Taj Khan Karrani was the independent Afghan ruler of Bengal, Isa Khan obtained an estate in Sonargaon and Maheswardi Pargana in 1564 as a vassal of the Karrani rulers. Isa Khan gradually increased his strength and in 1571 he was designated as the ruler of whole Bhati region. In 1575 he helped Daud Khan Karrani to fight with Mughal flotilla in the vicinity of Sonargaon.
Daud Khan Karrani died in the battle of Rajmahal against Mughals in 1576. Akbar then assigned Isa Khan as one of the Bara-Bhuiyans by making him the zamindar of Sonargaon. Since then he resisted Mughal's ruling in his area. With the help of allies, he stood defiant against Mughals in the battle against Subahdar Khan Jahan in 1578, Subahdar Shahbaz Khan in 1584 and Durjan Singh in 1597. Isa Khan died in September 1599. Then his son, Musa Khan, took control of Bhati region. But after the defeat of Musa Khan in 10 July 1610 by Islam Khan, the army general of Mughals, Sonargaon became one of the sarkars of Bengal subah. The capital of Bengal is then shifted to Jahangirnagar (later named Dhaka).
Bangladesh period 
By the 14th century Sonargaon became a commercial port. Trade activities were mentioned by travelers like Ibn Batuta, Ma Huan and Ralph Fitch. Maritime ships travelled between Sonargaon and southeast/west Asian countries. Muslin was produced in this region.
- Panam City was established in the late 19th century as a trading center of cotton fabrics during British rule. Hindu cloth merchants built their residential houses following colonial style with inspiration derived from European sources. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and the Muslim-Hindu riot, Panam City has reduced into a vacant community. Today this area is protected under the department of archaeology of Bangladesh. Panam city area was linked with the main city area by three brick bridges - Panam Bridge, Dalalpur Bridge and PanamNagar Bridge - during Mughal period. The bridges are still in use.
- Lok Shilpa Jadughar (Folk Art and Craft Museum) of Sonargaon was established by Bangladeshi painter Joynul Abedin on March 12, 1975. The house, originally called Bara Sardar Bari, was built in 1901.
- Khasnagar Dighi, a lake in Khasnagar village.
Due to the many threats to preservation (including flooding and vandalism), Sonargaon is placed in 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by World Monuments Fund.
See also 
- [[Duarte Barbosa|Barbosa, Duarte]]; Dames, Mansel Longworth (1996) [1918-1921], An Account Of The Countries Bordering On The Indian Ocean And Their Inhabitants; Written By Duarte Barbosa And Completed About The Year 1518 A.D. Vol 1: Including The Coasts Of East Africa, Arabia, Persia And Western India As Far As The Kingdom Of Vijayanagar. Vol. Ii: Including The Coasts Of Malabar, Eastern India, Further India, China And The Indian Archipelago., Asian Educational Services, pp. 138–139, ISBN 81-206-0451-2
- Muazzam Hussain Khan, Sonargaon, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-21
- ABM Shamsuddin Ahmed, Shamsuddin Firoz Shah, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-21
- Gope, Rabindra (2011). A visitor's guide to the Sonargaon Museum. p. 3. ISBN 978-984-33-2004-9.
- Muazzam Hussain Khan, Sharfuddin Abu Tawwamah, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-18
- Kingdom of South Asia
- Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah in Banglapedia
- Muazzam Hussain Khan, Tatar Khan, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-18
- Muazzam Hussain Khan, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2011-04-23
- Muazzam Hussain Khan, Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-21
- ABM Shamsuddin Ahmed, Iliyas Shah, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-21
- AA Sheikh Md Asrarul Hoque Chisti, Isa Khan, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-23
- Feroz, M A Hannan (2009). 400 years of Dhaka. Ittyadi. p. 12. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/9847028900650|9847028900650 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]].
- Md Solaiman, Narayanganj, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-02-21
- Ayesha Begum, Sonakanda Fort, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-01-21
Further reading 
- Kazi Azizul Islam and Tania Sharmeen (July 5, 2005). "Panam Among World’s 100 Endangered Historic Sites". News from Bangladesh.
- Roy, Pinaki (July 9, 2004). "Panam Nagar's Fate in Limbo". The Daily Star.
- Ali, Tawfique (April 26, 2007). "Unscientific Restoration Defacing Heritage". The Daily Star, Vol 5 num 1031.
- The World Monuments Fund's 2008 Watch List page for Sonargaon
- Sonargaon in Banglapedia
- Sonargaon in Everyneededinfo
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