|Religion||Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship, Taoism|
|-||Established||11th century BC|
|-||Conquered by Qi||286 BC|
Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). Its capital was Shangqiu (商丘). In 701 BC, a political marriage between Lady Yong of Song (宋雍氏) and Duke Zhuang of Zheng (as well as the capture of Zhai Zhong (祭仲), a leading warrior) empowered Song to manipulate the management of Zheng.
After King Wu of Zhou overthrew King Zhou of Shang, marking the transition from the Shang to the Zhou Dynasty, according to feudal etiquette, even though the Shang had been destroyed, the new rulers were bound to permit them to continue offering sacrifices to their ancestors. As a result for a time Shang became a vassal state of Zhou with King Zhou’s son Wu Geng (武庚) allowed to continue ancestor worship at Yin (殷). After King Wu’s death, Wu Geng fomented a rebellion and was killed by the Duke of Zhou. King Zhou of Shang’s elder brother was granted land at Shangqiu (商邱) where the capital of the new State of Song was built.
In 651 BC, Duke Huan of Song (宋桓公) died, leaving the district to be ruled by Duke Xiang of Song (宋襄公) who reigned from 651 to 637 BC. He was considered an Hegemon by some, but was unable to maintain that role. He eventually fell to the troops of Chu.
In 355 BC, Dai Ticheng (戴剔成), a descendant of Duke Dai of Song who had served as a minister of Duke Huan II of Song managed to usurp the throne. In 317 BC, Dai Yan, a younger brother of Ticheng took the throne and declared himself to be King Kang of Song, with Ticheng murdered or exiled. The king was ambitious and had succeeded in beating troops from Chu, Wei and Qi and annexing Teng at first, but the kingdom was finally annexed by Qi in 286 BC, while troops from Chu and Wei served in behalf of Qi. Qin, which had been an ally of Song, gave up saving the kingdom for strategic and diplomatic sakes after being convinced by Su Dai from Wei, and what Su Dai said later turned out all right and Qin got a benefit from the downfall of its ally.
Mozi references this state in the chapter "Obvious Existence of Ghosts", in which he mentions a number of "Spring and Autumn Annals", including the Zhou, Yan, and Qi as well. The "Spring and Autumn Annal of Song" has not survived.
Rulers of the State
Unless otherwise indicated, the ruler is the son of his predecessor.
- Weizi 微子 (Qi 啟), brother of the last Emperor of Shang, Di Xin
- Weizhong 微仲 (Yan 衍), younger brother of Weizi
- Ji, Duke of Song 宋公稽
- Duke Ding 宋丁公 (Shen 申)
- Duke Min I 宋湣公 (Gong 共), ancestor of Confucius
- Duke Yang 宋煬公 (Xi 熙), young brother of Duke Min I
- Duke Li 宋厲公 (Fusi 鮒祀), son of Duke Min I
- Duke Xi 宋僖公 (Ju 舉), 859-831
- Duke Hui 宋惠公 (Jian 覵), 830-800
- Duke Ai 宋哀公, 799
- Duke Dai 宋戴公, 799-766
- Duke Wu 宋武公 (Sikong 司空), 765-748
- Duke Xuan 宋宣公 (Li 力), 747-729
- Duke Mu 宋穆公 (He 和), 728-720, young brother of above
- Duke Shang 宋殤公 (Yuyi 與夷), 719-711
- Duke Zhuang 宋莊公 (Feng 馮), 710-692
- Duke Min II 宋閔公 (Jie 捷), 691-682
- You, Duke of Song 宋公游, assassinated less than 3 months after accession.
- Duke Huan I 宋桓公 (Yuyue 御說), 681-651, young brother of Duke Min II
- Duke Xiang 宋襄公 (Zifu 茲父), 650-637
- Duke Cheng 宋成公 (Wangchen 王臣), 636-620
- Yu, Duke of Song 宋公禦, young brother of above, assassinated less than one month after accession.
- Duke Zhao I 宋昭公 (Chujiu 杵臼), 619-611, son of Duke Cheng
- Duke Wen 宋文公 (Bao 鮑), 610-589, young brother of Duke Zhao I
- Duke Gong 宋共公 (Xia 瑕), 588-576
- Duke Ping 宋平公 (Cheng 成), 575-532
- Duke Yuan 宋元公 (Zuo 佐), 531-517
- Duke Jing 宋景公 (Touman 頭曼), 516-451
- Duke Zhao II 宋昭公 (De 得), 450-404, great-grandson of Duke Yuan
- Duke Dao 宋悼公 (Gouyou 購由), 403-396
- Duke Xiu 宋休公 (Tian 田), 395-373
- Duke Huan II 宋桓公 (Bibing 辟兵), 372-370
- Ticheng, Lord of Song 宋剔成君, 369-329, descendent of the 11th Duke, Dai
- Yan, Lord of Song 宋君偃, King Kang 宋康王, 328-286, brother of Ticheng
Song in astronomy