Sonication

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This article is about the laboratory procedure. For the bee pollination procedure, see buzz pollination.
A sonicator at the Weizmann Institute of Science during sonication

Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes. Ultrasonic frequencies (>20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication or ultra-sonication.[1]

In the laboratory, it is usually applied using an ultrasonic bath or an ultrasonic probe, colloquially known as a sonicator. In a paper machine, an ultrasonic foil can distribute cellulose fibres more uniformly and strengthen the paper.

Effects[edit]

Sonication has numerous effects, both chemical and physical. The chemical effects of ultrasound are concerned with understanding the effect of sonic waves on chemical systems, this is called sonochemistry.[2] The chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from a direct interaction with molecular species. Studies have shown that no direct coupling of the acoustic field with chemical species on a molecular level can account for sonochemistry[3] or sonoluminescence.[4] Instead, sonochemistry arises from acoustic cavitation: the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid.[5]

Applications[edit]

Sonication can be used for the production of nanoparticles, such as nanoemulsions,[6] nanocrystals, liposomes and wax emulsions, as well as for wastewater purification, degassing, extraction of plant oil, extraction of anthocyanins and antioxidants,[7] production of biofuels, crude oil desulphurization, cell disruption, polymer and epoxy processing, adhesive thinning, and many other processes. It is applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, water, food, ink, paint, coating, wood treatment, metalworking, nanocomposite, pesticide, fuel, wood product and many other industries.

Sonication can be used to speed dissolution, by breaking intermolecular interactions. It is especially useful when it is not possible to stir the sample, as with NMR tubes. It may also be used to provide the energy for certain chemical reactions to proceed. Sonication can be used to remove dissolved gases from liquids (degassing) by sonicating the liquid while it is under a vacuum. This is an alternative to the freeze-pump-thaw and sparging methods.

In biological applications, sonication may be sufficient to disrupt or deactivate a biological material. For example, sonication is often used to disrupt cell membranes and release cellular contents. This process is called sonoporation. Sonication is also used to fragment molecules of DNA, in which the DNA subjected to brief periods of sonication is sheared into smaller fragments.

Sonication is commonly used in nanotechnology for evenly dispersing nanoparticles in liquids.

Sonication can also be used to initiate crystallisation processes and even control polymorphic crystallisations.[8] It is used to intervene in anti-solvent precipitations (crystallisation) to aid mixing and isolate small crystals.

Sonication is the mechanism used in ultrasonic cleaning—loosening particles adhering to surfaces. In addition to laboratory science applications, sonicating baths have applications including cleaning objects such as spectacles and jewelry.

Sonication is also used to extract microfossils from rock.[9]

Sonication can also refer to buzz pollination – the process that bees use to shake pollen from flowers by vibrating their wing muscles.

Equipment[edit]

Schematic of bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic liquid processors

Substantial intensity of ultrasound and high ultrasonic vibration amplitudes are required for many processing applications, such as nano-crystallization, nano-emulsification,[6] deagglomeration, extraction, cell disruption, as well as many others. Commonly, a process is first tested on a laboratory scale to prove feasibility and establish some of the required ultrasonic exposure parameters. After this phase is complete, the process is transferred to a pilot (bench) scale for flow-through pre-production optimization and then to an industrial scale for continuous production. During these scale-up steps, it is essential to make sure that all local exposure conditions (ultrasonic amplitude, cavitation intensity, time spent in the active cavitation zone, etc.) stay the same. If this condition is met, the quality of the final product remains at the optimized level, while the productivity is increased by a predictable "scale-up factor". The productivity increase results from the fact that laboratory, bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic processor systems incorporate progressively larger ultrasonic horns, able to generate progressively larger high-intensity cavitation zones and, therefore, to process more material per unit of time. This is called "direct scalability". It is important to point out that increasing the power capacity of the ultrasonic processor alone does not result in direct scalability, since it may be (and frequently is) accompanied by a reduction in the ultrasonic amplitude and cavitation intensity. During direct scale-up, all processing conditions must be maintained, while the power rating of the equipment is increased in order to enable the operation of a larger ultrasonic horn.[10][11][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/prospect/ontology.asp?id=CMO:0001708
  2. ^ Sonochemical Reactions and Synthesis
  3. ^ Suslick, K. S. "Sonochemistry," Science 1990, 247, 1439-1445.
  4. ^ Suslick, K. S.; Flannigan, D. J. “Inside a Collapsing Bubble, Sonoluminescence and Conditions during Cavitation” Annual Rev. Phys. Chem. 2008, 59, 659-683.
  5. ^ Suslick, Kenneth S. (February 1989). The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound. Scientific American. pp.62-68 (p.62)
  6. ^ a b Peshkovsky, A.S., Peshkovsky, S.L., Bystryak, S. "Scalable high-power ultrasonic technology for the production of translucent nanoemulsions", Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 2013. 69: p. 77–62.
  7. ^ Golmohamadi, Amir (September 2013). "Effect of ultrasound frequency on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of red raspberry puree". Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 20 (5): 1316–23. PMID 23507361. 
  8. ^ Deora, N.S., Misra, N.N., et al. (2013) Ultrasound for improved crystallisation in food processing, Food Engineering Reviews, 5(1):36-44.
  9. ^ Gensel, P.G.; Johnson, N.G.; Strother, P.K. (1990). "Early Land Plant Debris (Hooker's" Waifs and Strays"?)". PALAIOS 5 (6): 520–547. doi:10.2307/3514860. JSTOR 3514860. 
  10. ^ Peshkovsky, S.L. and Peshkovsky, A.S., "Matching a transducer to water at cavitation: Acoustic horn design principles", Ultrason. Sonochem., 2007. 14: p. 314–322.
  11. ^ A.S. Peshkovsky, S.L. Peshkovsky “Industrial-scale processing of liquids by high-intensity acoustic cavitation - the underlying theory and ultrasonic equipment design principles”, In: Nowak F.M, ed., Sonochemistry: Theory, Reactions and Syntheses, and Applications, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers; 2010.
  12. ^ A.S. Peshkovsky, S.L. Peshkovsky “Acoustic Cavitation Theory and Equipment Design Principles for Industrial Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasound”, Book Series: Physics Research and Technology, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers; 2010.

See also[edit]