Sonipat

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Sonipat
Sonepat
City
Sonipat is located in Haryana
Sonipat
Sonipat
Location in Haryana, India
Coordinates: 28°59′24″N 77°01′19″E / 28.990°N 77.022°E / 28.990; 77.022Coordinates: 28°59′24″N 77°01′19″E / 28.990°N 77.022°E / 28.990; 77.022
Country India
State Haryana
District Sonipat
Government
 • M.P. Mr. Ramesh Kaushik(BJP)
Elevation 224.15 m (735.40 ft)
Languages
 • Spoken Hindi, English, Haryanvi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 131001
Telephone code +91-130
Vehicle registration HR-10, HR-79, HR-69(Commercial Vehicles), HR-99(Temporary)
Coastline 0 kilometres (0 mi)
Sex ratio 1.19 /
Literacy 73%
Website www.sonipat.nic.in

Sonipat (founded as Swarnaprastha) is a town and a Municipal Council in Haryana state of India. It comes under the National Capital Region and is around 20 km from Delhi. The Yamuna River runs along the eastern boundary.

On 22 December 1972, Sonipat was carved out of Rohtak and made a full-fledged district.

Etymology[edit]

According to legend, Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later on became Swarnprastha, meaning the "Golden City": derived from two Sanskrit words, "swarn" (gold) and "prastha" (place). Later, the name Swarnprastha changed into Swarnpath, and then to its current form, Sonipat/Sonepat.

Ancient history[edit]

Reference to the city comes in the epic Mahabharata, Sonipat was founded as Swarnaprastha by the five Pandava brothers. It was one of the five prasthas or towns demanded by Yudhisthira as the price of peace from Duryodhana and in lieu of the kingdom of Hastinapur. The other four villages were Panprastha (Panipat), Baghprastha (Baghpat), Tilprastha (Tilpat) and Indraprastha. Another legend ascribed it to Raja Soni, the thirteenth descendent of Arjuna, one of the Pandava brothers.

Though both are without supporting evidence but it had been noted much earlier by the grammarian Pāṇini in his celebrated Ashtadhyayi. The town was therefore already in existence around 600 B.C.

Geography & Topography[edit]

Sonipat is located at 28°59′N 77°01′E / 28.98°N 77.02°E / 28.98; 77.02.[1] It has an average elevation of 224.15 meters above sea level (735.4 feet). Sonipat borders Delhi, the national capital, to the south, Panipat district to the north, Uttar Pradesh state to the east and Rohtak district to the west. The total area of Sonipat district is 2,260 km2.

Topographically, Sonipat district is divided into three regions, the Khadar, Upland Plain and Sandy Region. Sonipat city lies on the upland plains, which are covered with old alluvium, which, if properly irrigated, is highly productive. Broadly speaking, the district is a continuous part of the Haryana-Punjab Plain, but the area is not level in some parts. Sonipat District has fine loamy soil with a rich color. However, some areas have sandy soil.

Places of interest[edit]

Khwaja Khizar Tomb
The prophet Khizr Khan Khwaja

Khwaja Khizr Tomb[edit]

The tomb of Khwaja Khizr houses the remains of the saint and son of Darya Khan who lived during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi. The structure was built between 1522 and 1525 AD. The tomb stands on an elevated platform and is one of the few monuments where red sandstone along with ‘kankar’ blocks have been used. The ceiling is decorative and made of multicolor floral designs. The cenotaph chamber is surrounded by a dome-shaped structure which rests on a small drum of octagonal shape. Now its under the protection of Archaeological Survey of India and surrounded by 4 acres of gardens.[2]

Yamuna River[edit]

A cake of ghevar
Main article: Yamuna River

The main water system in the district is the Yamuna River and the irrigation canals flowing out of it. The river flows besides the rural belt in the eastern side of district. It also acts as a natural boundary between the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Mughal buildings[edit]

There are several Mughal buildings on the outskirts of the city, including the Mosque of Abdullah Nasir-ud-din, who was a descendant from Mushid of Iran.

Food[edit]

Sonipat is famous for its monsoon time sweet dish ghevar and its Dhabas (local restaurants) at Murthal on Grand Trunk Road. Sonipat's subpart Gohana is famous for jalebi.

Economy[edit]

Industries[edit]

Industrial development in the city started in the 1950s with Atlas Cycle. Since then, many small and big industries has been established. Sonipat has four industrial areas (Sonipat, Kundli, Rai, Barhi) which contain numerous small- and medium-scale industries. Some notable industries are:

Atlas Cycle Industry was started in 1951 and today it is one of the largest manufacturer of bicycles in the world.[3]

Electric Construction & Equipment Co. Ltd. is a company of the B. K. Birla Group which is also known as E.C.E.[4] or the Birla Factory. It manufactures transformers and switchgear.

OSRAM India was formerly part of E.C.E., but in October 1998 it was acquired by OSRAM.[5] It manufactures electric bulbs, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and tubelights.

LT Foods Ltd.[6] is a global rice food company that makes Daawat Rice. It is one of the major organization in Haryana involved in the milling, processing and marketing of branded basmati rice.

Agriculture[edit]

An agricultural area

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. The main crops are wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, pulses, barley, maize, millet, etc. Presently, rice and sugarcane cultivation is undertaken in the Khadar area and oilseeds, horticultural plants, vegetables and flowers, is cultivated in the upland plains of district. The main sources of irrigation are tube wells and canals. There are two main types of crops: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnuts. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, pulses, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March. Dairy farming forms an essential part of the rural economy. Animal husbandry has been taken up as an integral component of diversified agriculture.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Sonipat is dry with a hot summer and a cold winter. The weather becomes milder during the monsoon period (July to September). The post-monsoon months of October and November constitute a transition period prior to the onset of winter.

The winter starts in December when day and night temperatures fall rapidly. January is the coldest month when the mean daily minimum temperature is 6 to 7 °C. During cold waves, the minimum temperature may go down to the freezing point of water, and frosts can occur. During the summer months of May and June, the maximum temperature sometimes reaches 47 °C. The temperature drops considerably with the advancement of the monsoon in June. However, the night temperature during this period continues to be high.

The annual rainfall varies considerably from year to year. However, the maximum rainfall is experienced during the monsoon season, which reaches its peak in the month of July. In fact, the monsoon period accounts for 75% of the annual rainfall in the district. On average there are 24 days in a year with rainfall of at least 2.5 mm. Humidity is low during the greater part of the year. The district experiences high humidity only during the monsoon period. The period of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May. During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months.[7]

Climate data for Sonipat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
(70)
24
(75)
30
(86)
37
(99)
40
(104)
38
(100)
35
(95)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
28
(82)
22
(72)
31.3
(88.3)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
22
(72)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
21
(70)
14
(57)
9
(48)
19.8
(67.6)
Rainfall mm (inches) 19.7
(0.776)
24.6
(0.969)
24.6
(0.969)
10.1
(0.398)
40.7
(1.602)
96.9
(3.815)
190
(7.48)
201
(7.91)
134.3
(5.287)
12
(0.47)
4
(0.16)
10
(0.39)
767.9
(30.226)
 % humidity 66 58 47 32 35 53 68 71 66 55 51 63 55.4
[citation needed]

Education[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi Education City[edit]

The Rajiv Gandhi Education City (RGEC) at kundli is an ambitious project by Government of Haryana to develop a hub of higher education institutes. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi has taken possession of 50 acres of land offered for the extension of its Delhi campus.Many Universities who have started their projects for establishing their campus.

Universities[edit]

SRM University, Sonepat Campus[edit]

The SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University), is a co-educational private university in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It has four campuses in Tamil Nadu — Kattankulathur, Ramapuram, Vadapalani and Tiruchirapalli — and in Modinagar, near Delhi.It attained the status of a full-fledged university, under section 3 of the UGC Act 1956. SRM has started its first campus in Haryana in the Rajiv Gandhi Education City and is a Private state University. The campus is spread over 55 acres of lush green lawn environment located at Sonepat, Haryana with many topographical features all around. This campus is under construction and the admissions started in 2013. This campus has the Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Library & Information science, Faculty of Management, Faculty of Finance & Commerce and Faculty of Humanities. Sonepat Campus would be the first SRM campus to offer programs in Law from 2014.[8]

Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology[edit]

Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University Of Science and Technology is spread over 274 acres (1.11 km2) of land in a rural area along the Sonepat-Murthal road. Earlier, it was known as Chhotu Ram State College of Engineering.

O.P. Jindal Global University[edit]

O.P. Jindal Global University is a non-profit global university established by the Haryana Private Universities (Second Amendment) Act, 2009. JGU was established in memory of Mr. O.P. Jindal as a philanthropic initiative of Mr. Naveen Jindal, the Founding Chancellor. The University Grants Commission has accorded its recognition to O.P. Jindal Global University. JGU is situated on a 60-acre residential campus. JGU has established four schools: Jindal Global Law School, Jindal Global Business School,[9] Jindal School of International Affairs and Jindal School of Government and Public Policy.[10]

Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya[edit]

Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya, the first university for women in northern India, is situated at Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat. The university has a 185 acres (0.75 km2) existing campus and there is a proposal to acquire another 450 acres (1.8 km2) of land. Many thousands of students are already enrolled in professional courses like BAMS, B.Ed, D.Ed, Diploma in Electronics and Communication, Computer Engineering, Pharmacy, Library and Information Science, MLT, IT and Modern Office Practice. Five-year and three-year LLB courses are imparted at the PSD Girls Law College.[11]

Colleges[edit]

The Sonipat Hindu Educational & Charitable Society has been active since 1914 and has established 17 institutions offering programmes at secondary, senior secondary, graduate and post graduate levels in the fields of Science, Arts, Commerce, Pharmacy, Education, Architecture, Engineering and Technology. Hindu Boys College, Hindu Girls College, Hindu College of Education, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Hindu Institute of Management, Hindu Institute of Technology,Hindu School of Architecture and the Hindu College of Engineering are the colleges established by the society.[12]

Shri Sanatan Dharam Sabha, Gita bhawan (Regd.) Sonipat is another charitable trust which is very active in the field of education in the city. It runs the Gita Vidya Mandir College of Pharmacy and Gita Vidya Mandir Girls College.

There are many colleges in the fields of Arts, Commerce, Hospitality, Pharmacy, Education, Architecture, Engineering, Technology and Management, including Bhagwan Mahaveer Institute of Engineering & Technology, Bhagwan Parshuram College of Engineering, Bharat Institute of Technology Sonipat,Bharat Institute of Polytechnic Sonipat(BIPS),Bharat Institute of Nursing Sonipat(BINS),Bharat Group of Institutions, CRA College, Delhi Institute of Technology & Management, Gateway College of Architecture & Design, Gateway Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gateway Institute of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Govt. Polytechnic, Royal Institute of Management and Technology, Shri Balwant Institute of Technology, South Point Institute of Engineering, Tek Chand Mann College of Engineering, P.M. College Of Engineering and Tika Ram P.G. Girls College.

Sports[edit]

The Sports Authority of India has established the Northern Regional Center (the SAI, Ch. Devi Lal Regional Center) at Sonipat to provide world-class facilities for athletes (especially wrestlers).

In July 1973 the government established the Motilal Nehru School of Sports, Rai, Sonipat[13] to provide education facilities with extra emphasis on sports. It trains athletes in hockey, basketball, lawn tennis, horse riding, gymnastics, swimming, rifle shooting, volleyball, boxing, cricket and football.

Notable Athletes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]