Sonitpur district

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Sonitpur district
শোণিতপুৰ
District
Map of Sonitpur district
Map of Sonitpur district
Sonitpur district is located in Assam
Sonitpur district
Sonitpur district
Coordinates: 26°38′N 92°48′E / 26.63°N 92.8°E / 26.63; 92.8Coordinates: 26°38′N 92°48′E / 26.63°N 92.8°E / 26.63; 92.8
Country  India
State Assam
Attained District status as Darrang District on 1835 and Bifurcated to Darrang district & Sonitpur Districton 1983 1983
Headquarters Tezpur
Area
 • Total 5,324 km2 (2,056 sq mi)
Elevation 48 m (157 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,925,975
 • Density 360/km2 (940/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Assamese
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Website sonitpur.nic.in

Sonitpur {Pron: ˌsə(ʊ)nɪtˈpʊə or ˌʃə(ʊ)nɪtˈpʊə} (Assamese: শোণিতপুৰ) is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. It stands among the largest districts of Assam. In terms of area Sonitpur is the second largest district of Assam after Karbi Anglong district. It is spread over an area of 5324 sq. km on the northern banks of Brahmaputra, the lifeline of Assam. The population of Sonitpur district is 19, 24,110 as per 2011 Census. It is the third most populous district of Assam (out of 27), after Nagaon and Dhubri.[1] The demography of Sonitpur district is not entirely homogenous as several linguistic, religious and ethnic communities and groups live in Sonitpur district. It is also home to several natural beauty and wildlife hotspots with number of such wildlife sanctuaries, national parks are situated in and around Sonitpur. The district headquarters are located at Tezpur. Distance from State Capital (Dispur) is 198 km (via Nagaon) and 181 km (via Mangaldoi).


Etymology[edit]

The name Tezpur is derived from the Sanskrit words 'Teza' (meaning blood) and 'Pura' (meaning town or city). Legend has it that the original name of this place was 'Sonitpur' ("sonit" in Sanskrit also means blood), the capital of asura king, Banasura, a devout of Shiva. Later his daughter Usha had a Gandharva marriage with Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna, whom she had abducted with the help of Chitralekha. On finding this Banasura imprisoned Aniruddha. Subsequently, in the battle between Krishna's army and Banasura's army fought for the rescue of Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna, according to legend, there was so much bloodshed that the whole place was stained in red.[2][3] This led to the name of the place becoming Tezpur. It is the "seventh largest city" of Assam after Guwahati, Silchar, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Nagaon and Tinsukia.

History[edit]

Sonitpur district was created in 1983 when it was split from Darrang.[4] Udalguri was also carved out for the BTAD.

Administration[edit]

  • Head Quarter  : Tezpur
  • Number of Sub-Divisions  : 3
  • Number of Revenue Circles/ Tehsils  : 7
  • Number of Mouza  : 26
  • Number of Community Development(C.D.) Blocks : 14
  • Number of Police Stations  : 11
  • No. of Anchalik Panchayats  : 14
  • Name of Gaon Panchayats  : 158
  • Number of Villages  : 1615 (including 19 under BTAD)
  • Number of Towns  : 5
  • Names of Towns  : Tezpur, Dhekiajuli, Rangapara, Biswanath Chariali, Gohpur
  • Number of Municipality Board: 2
  • Number of Town Committees  : 3
  • Number of Police District  : 2 (Sonitpur Police District & Biswanth Police District)

Geography[edit]

Sonitpur district occupies an area of 5,324 square kilometres (2,056 sq mi),[5] comparatively equivalent to Guadalcanal.[6] Major Rivers in the district are Brahmaputra, Jiabharali, Gabharu, Borgang & Buroi.

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Sonitpur district has a population of 1,925,975,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho[7] or the US state of West Virginia.[8] This gives it a ranking of 245th in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 365 inhabitants per square kilometre (950/sq mi) .[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.67%.[1] Sonitpur has a sex ratio of 946 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 69.96%.[1]


Climate[edit]

Sonitpur District falls in the Sub-Tropical climatic region, and enjoys Monsoon type of climate. Summers are hot and humid; with an average temperature of 29° C. Summer rain is heavy which is both a boon and a bane for the people. A boon, for it provides natural irrigation to the fields; and a bane, as it causes the rivers to overflow their banks and cause floods. Winters extend from the month of October to February, and are cold and generally dry, with an average temperature of 16° C. It gets quite chilling in late December and early January, on account of snowfall in the upper reaches of Arunachal Pradesh.

Economy (as on 1997-98 )[edit]

  • Major Economic Sector  : Agriculture (70 – 80) %.
  • Net Area Sown  : 1580 sq. km
  • Production of Winter Paddy  : 65780 (Hectares)
  • Number of Tea Garden  : 73
  • Area under Tea Plantation  : 2,81,660 Bighas (Approximately)
  • Major Fruit Products  : Lichi, Pineapple, Banana
  • Major Forest Products  : Timber, Stone & Sand.
  • Major Industry  : Tea Processing, Cane Product, Food Product,Timber Sawing, & Tea Machinery Manufacturer.
  • Village Electrified  : 1249 nos.
  • Total Road Length  : 1885.00 km.
  • National Highway  : 208.00 km (No. 52)

Demographic Pattern[edit]

The major linguistic communities inhabiting the District are:

The Assamese[edit]

The majority people inhabiting the District are Assamese. They are among the original inhabitants of the place, and the typical culture of the place grew with them.

The Nepalis[edit]

The Nepali community is fairly dominant in the central and southern part of the District, especially in the Biswanath Chariali and Gohpur Sub-Divisions.

The Bengalis[edit]

The Bengali community came from erstwhile undivided Bengal, as officials and clerks of the British administration and the Tea Industry; and stayed back. Later, on account of the partition of India, people coming as refugees added significantly to the community. Though their primary language is Bengali but most of them speak Assamese too.

The Adivasis (Tea-Tribes)[edit]

The Adivasi people were brought by the British from Chotanagpur area and Orissa to serve as labourers in the Tea Gardens. In course of time, they assimilated themselves in the greater Assamese society, while retaining their basic cultural traits.


Tribes[edit]

Mishings[edit]

The Mishing people live in a scattered manner in the northern part of the Naduar and Biswanath Circles, i.e. east of the Bhorali River; and form a significant portion of the population of Gohpur sub-division.

The Bodos[edit]

The Bodo dominated areas include the northern part of Dhekiajuli, Chariduar, Naduar, Helem and Gohpur (Sadar) Circles.

Other Tribes[edit]

Other major tribes of the District include the Rabhas, Koch Rajbongshis, Mechs, Nyishis, Garos, Adis, Apatanis, Lamas etc. Their population is sparse, and mainly confined to the foothills of the Himalayas near Arunachal Pradesh.

All the tribes have their indigenous cultures but they have adopted Assamese culture and thereby they are considered as part of greater Assamese community.

Religion[edit]

The major religions of the populace of Sonitpur district are – Hindu and Muslim, As per 2011 census there are 1,463,746 of Hindus and 308,278 (16.04%) Muslims religious people. Other small population following Buddhism and Christian is also present in the district.

Notable personalities[edit]

Tezpur is considered to be the cultural capital of Assamese culture. Being from the core Assamese cultural region, the town has produced many stalwarts such as Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Rupkonwar Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903–51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909–69), Phani Sarma (1909–70) and Ananda Chandra Agarwala (1874–1939). It is also the birthplace of the former Speaker of the Indian Parliament (2004–2009), Somnath Chatterjee.

Some other notable persons are :

Flora and fauna[edit]

In 1998 Sonitpur district became home to Nameri National Park, which has an area of 200 km2 (77.2 sq mi).[9] It is also home to Orang National Park, which it shares with Darrang district. Orang was established in 1999 and has an area of 79 km2 (30.5 sq mi).[9]

Sonitpur is home to two wildlife sanctuaries: Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary and Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary.[9] It is also home to Behali, Naduar, Charduar RF.

Education[edit]

  • Number of University  : 1
  • Number of Colleges  : 13
  • Number of I.T.I.  : 1
  • No. of Higher Secondary School : 30
  • No. of High School  : 166
  • No. of Junior Basic School  : 1242
  • No. of Senior Basic School  : 220

Health Centre[edit]

  • No. of Hospitals  : 6
  • No. of Primary Health Centre  : 23
  • No. of Dispensaries  : 11
  • No. of Sub-centres  : 294
  • No. of Mental Hospital  : 1

Transportation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  2. ^ Sajnani, Manohar (2001). Encyclopaedia of Tourism Resources in India. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-81-7835-017-2. 
  3. ^ "Legend & History". Sonitpur district website. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  4. ^ Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  5. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. 
  6. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. Guadalcanal 5,353km2 
  7. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Lesotho 1,924,886 
  8. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. West Virginia 1,852,994 
  9. ^ a b c Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Assam". Retrieved September 25, 2011. 

External links[edit]