Sonnet 18

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Sonnet 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date;
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st:
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

–William Shakespeare

Sonnet 18, often alternately titled Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?, is one of the best-known of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. Part of the Fair Youth sequence (which comprises sonnets 1126 in the accepted numbering stemming from the first edition in 1609), it is the first of the cycle after the opening sequence now described as the Procreation sonnets.

In the sonnet, the speaker compares his beloved to the summer season, and argues that his beloved is better. He also states that his beloved will live on forever through the words of the poem. Scholars have found parallels within the poem to Ovid's Tristia and Amores, both of which have love themes. Sonnet 18 is written in the typical Shakespearean sonnet form, having 14 lines of iambic pentameter ending in a rhymed couplet. Detailed exegeses have revealed several double meanings within the poem, giving it a greater depth of interpretation.

Paraphrase[edit]

A facsimile of the original printing of Sonnet 18.

The poem starts with a flattering question to the beloved—"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" The beloved is both "more lovely and more temperate" than a summer's day. The speaker lists some negative things about summer: it is short—"summer's lease hath all too short a date"—and sometimes the sun is too hot—"Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines." However, the beloved has beauty that will last forever, unlike the fleeting beauty of a summer's day. By putting his love's beauty into the form of poetry, the poet is preserving it forever. "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." The lover's beauty will live on, through the poem which will last as long as it can be read.

The poet never describes anything specific about the beloved. None of the qualities which make the beloved superior to a summer's day are actually possible — remaining eternally young and beautiful and never dying — nor are they inherent in the beloved. They are qualities given to the beloved by the poet through the act of writing the poem and only existing within it.

Context[edit]

The poem is part of the Fair Youth sequence (which comprises sonnets 1–126 in the accepted numbering stemming from the first edition in 1609). It is also the first of the cycle after the opening sequence now described as the Procreation sonnets, although some scholars see it as a part of the Procreation sonnets, as it still addresses the idea of reaching eternal life through the written word, a theme of sonnets 1517. In this view, it can be seen as part of a transition to sonnet 20's time theme.[1] There are many theories about the identity of the 1609 Quarto's enigmatic dedicatee, Mr. W.H. Some scholars suggest that this poem may be expressing a hope that the Procreation sonnets despaired of: the hope of metaphorical procreation in a homosexual relationship.[2] Other scholars have pointed out that the order in which the sonnets are placed may have been the decision of publishers and not of Shakespeare. This introduces the possibility that Sonnet 18 was originally intended for a woman.[3]

Structure[edit]

Sonnet 18 is a typical English or Shakespearean sonnet. It consists of three quatrains followed by a couplet, and has the characteristic rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg. The poem carries the meaning of an Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet. Petrarchan sonnets typically discussed the love and beauty of a beloved, often an unattainable love, but not always.[4] It also contains a volta, or shift in the poem's subject matter, beginning with the third quatrain.[5]

Iambic Pentameter of a line of Sonnet 18[6]
Stress x / x / x / x / x /
Syllable Thou art more love- ly and more temp- pe- rate

Exegesis[edit]

"Complexion" in line six, can have two meanings: 1) The outward appearance of the face as compared with the sun ("the eye of heaven") in the previous line, or 2) the older sense of the word in relation to The four humours. In the time of Shakespeare, "complexion" carried both outward and inward meanings, as did the word "temperate" (externally, a weather condition; internally, a balance of humours). The second meaning of "complexion" would communicate that the beloved's inner, cheerful, and temperate disposition is sometimes blotted out like the sun on a cloudy day. The first meaning is more obvious, meaning of a negative change in his outward appearance.[7]

The word, "untrimmed" in line eight, can be taken two ways: First, in the sense of loss of decoration and frills, and second, in the sense of untrimmed sails on a ship. In the first interpretation, the poem reads that beautiful things naturally lose their fanciness over time. In the second, it reads that nature is a ship with sails not adjusted to wind changes in order to correct course. This, in combination with the words "nature's changing course", creates an oxymoron: the unchanging change of nature, or the fact that the only thing that does not change is change. This line in the poem creates a shift from the mutability of the first eight lines, into the eternity of the last six. Both change and eternity are then acknowledged and challenged by the final line.[4]

"Ow'st" in line ten can also carry two meanings equally common at the time: "ownest" and "owest". Many readers interpret it as "ownest", as do many Shakespearean glosses ("owe" in Shakespeare's day, was sometimes used as a synonym for "own"). However, "owest" delivers an interesting view on the text. It conveys the idea that beauty is something borrowed from nature—that it must be paid back as time progresses. In this interpretation, "fair" can be a pun on "fare", or the fare required by nature for life's journey.[8] Other scholars have pointed out that this borrowing and lending theme within the poem is true of both nature and humanity. Summer, for example, is said to have a "lease" with "all too short a date." This monetary theme is common in many of Shakespeare's sonnets, as it was an everyday theme in his budding capitalistic society.[9]

In music[edit]

Roxy Music's Bryan Ferry recorded Shakespeare's Sonnet No. 18 (2:53) for the CD Diana, Princess of Wales: Tribute (disc 1).

In 2001 Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour recorded Sonnet 18 as a song for his wife, with the music written by him and played on piano by Michael Kamen. A video of him recording the piece was released as an extra on his 2002 DVD, David Gilmour in Concert but the recording was never released on an album. The song's credits are given as "Shakespeare/Gilmour".[10]

It was also set to music by the Swedish composer Nils Lindberg as a choral piece.

Moreover the singer and songwriter Dan Smith, head of the band "Bastille", admitted to have been inspired by this sonnet when writing the song "Poet".

Cleo Laine and John Dankworth recorded a jazz version of this poem on their album Shakespeare & All That Jazz (1964).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shakespeare, William et al. The Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. pg. 130 ISBN 0-521-29403-7
  2. ^ Neely, Carol Thomas (October 1978). "The Structure of English Renaissance Sonnet Sequence". ELH (ELH, Vol. 45, No. 3) 45 (3): 359–389. doi:10.2307/2872643. JSTOR 2872643. 
  3. ^ Schiffer, James. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: Garland Pub, 1999. pg. 124. ISBN 0-8153-2365-4
  4. ^ a b Jungman, Robert E. (January 2003). "Trimming Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.". ANQ a Quarterly Journal of Short Articles Notes and Reviews (ANQ) 16 (1): 18–19. doi:10.1080/08957690309598181. ISSN 0895-769X. 
  5. ^ Preminger, Alex and T. Brogan. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. pg. 894 ISBN 0-691-02123-6
  6. ^ Simpson, Paul. Stylistics. New York: Routledge, 2004. pg. 27. ISBN 0-415-28105-9
  7. ^ Ray, Robert H. (October 1994). "Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.". The Explicator 53 (1): 10–11. doi:10.1080/00144940.1994.9938800. ISSN 0014-4940. 
  8. ^ Howell, Mark (April 1982). "Shakespeare's Sonnet 18". The Explicator 40 (3): 12. ISSN 0014-4940. 
  9. ^ Thurman, Christopher (May 2007). "Love's Usury, Poet's Debt: Borrowing and Mimesis in Shakespeare's Sonnets". Literature Compass (Literature Compass) 4 (3): 809–819. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2007.00433.x. 
  10. ^ "David Gilmour Sonnet 18". 2006-09-06. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 

References[edit]

  • Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.
  • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
  • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London.
  • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt.
  • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links[edit]