Sonnet 8

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Sonnet 8

Music to hear, why hear'st thou music sadly?
Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy:
Why lov'st thou that which thou receiv'st not gladly,
Or else receiv'st with pleasure thine annoy?
If the true concord of well-tunèd sounds,
By unions married, do offend thine ear,
They do but sweetly chide thee, who confounds
In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear.
Mark how one string, sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by mutual ordèring;
Resembling sire and child and happy mother,
Who, all in one, one pleasing note do sing:
Whose speechless song being many, seeming one,
Sings this to thee: 'Thou single wilt prove none.'

–William Shakespeare

Sonnets 1 through 17 are defined as the procreation sonnets of the Fair Youth sequence (see Context below). Sonnet 8 is amongst this collection. As with the other procreation sonnets, it urges a young man to settle down with a wife and to have children. It insists a family is the key to living a harmonious, peaceful life.

Paraphrase[edit]

Sonnet 8 by William Shakespeare empathizes with the subject, who is against the idea of marriage. The young man, the subject of the sonnet, is chided for choosing to be single. The poet uses comparisons with music and marriage, likening the “true concord of well-tuned sounds” to a marriage. It is appropriate that Sonnet 8, a sonnet of musical descant, is placed as the 8th sonnet, since an “eight” is a “true concord.”[1] Shakespeare does this to emphasize the beauty and importance of having a family. The sonnet emphasizes the notion that the subject will not reach true harmony if he does not settle down with a wife and children. His life will be in discord if he chooses to continue being single. It is among the string of procreation sonnets written by Shakespeare. The procreation sonnets are sonnets 1-17. All share the theme of urging a young man to marry and have children, insisting they are key to a harmonious life.

In line 6, “Unions” can have two different meanings: that which is blatant to marriage and the other referring to harmonies. The Oxford English Dictionary does not give this as a definition, but the closeness of union to unison keeps the musical connotation present in the reader’s mind. Then in line 8, “the parts that thou shouldst bear” still keeps the idea that music and family are one by saying a part that is played in the family, or with a musical instrument in an orchestra. “resembling sire and child and happy mother” in line 11 alludes to the Holy Family, Mary, Jesus, and Joseph as they were depicted as a happy family in multiple church paintings during the time this sonnet was written. The poet warns the subject against staying single in the last line, “‘Thou single wilt prove none.’” As a single person, a man will accomplish nothing.[2]

Context[edit]

Sonnet 8 is part of the Fair Youth sequence, and it was published in the 1609 Quartos, a collection of sonnets. The Fair Youth sequence makes up the largest portion of Shakespeare’s sonnets (see the Rival Poet sequence); sonnets 1-126 are apart of this sonnet sequence.

The Fair Youth sonnets center around one subject, who is a young, fair man. There is debate as to whom the subject is. Some theorize the sonnets are written about William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.[3] Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, has also been suggested as the fair youth.[4] The first 17 sonnets urge the young man to marry and have children, including Sonnet 8. The rest of the sonnets in the sequence seek to immortalize the fair youth within the poet’s words.

Structure[edit]

Sonnet 8 follows standard Shakespearean sonnet form. With a total of 14 lines, it is sectioned into two quatrains and a couplet. However, unlike majority of Shakespeare’s sonnets, Sonnet 8 does not have an iambic pentameter. It follows the characteristic rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg. Sonnet 8 has a trochaic pentameter.

Iambic Pentameter of a line of Sonnet 8[5]
Stress / x x / x / x / x / x
Syllable Mu- sic to hear why hear'st thou mu- sic sad- ly

Exegesis[edit]

In line 3, “Why lov’st thou” means “why do you like”. It is followed by “thou receiv’st” which activates a sexual tone, emphasized by “receiv’st with pleasure” in line 4.[6] The subject of the poem is having affairs; running around receiving pleasures, but with no intention of settling down. Yet “thine annoy” means what gives one pain, indicates the subject is unhappy with his situation.

There are some theories which indicate a homosexual relationship between the poet and the Fair Youth. These theorists argue that the use of affectionate word choice by the poet towards the young man must be due to a homosexual desire. [7] Some suggest this theory is invalid, saying the poet views the Fair Youth as a son rather than a lover. Majority tend to lean towards the idea of a homosexual relationship due to choice of wording in some sonnets (see Sonnet 20).

During the era in which Shakespeare's sonnets were written, any "sexual acts that do not result in reproduction" [8] were condemned. In David Hawkes's article, 'Sodomy, Usury, and the Narrative of Shakespeare's Sonnets', he "argues that by using the language of ‘unnatural’ usury to expound the merits of ‘natural’ marriage and procreation, Shakespeare is ironically undermining the assumption that, because homosexual sex is non-reproductive, homoerotic desire is ‘unnatural’." [9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Larsen, Kenneth J.. "Sonnet 8". Essays on Shakespeare's Sonnets. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  2. ^ Shakespeare, William; Jones, Katherine (2010). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: Methuen Drama. 
  3. ^ Larsen, Kenneth J.. "Mr. W.H.". Essays on Shakespeare's Sonnets. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Delahoyde, Michael. "Dr.". Washington State University. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  5. ^ Simpson, Paul. Stylistics. New York: Routledge, 2004. pg. 27. ISBN 0-415-28105-9
  6. ^ Booth, Stephen (2000). Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 144. 
  7. ^ Thurman, Christopher (2007). "Love's Usury, Poet's Debt: Borrowing and Mimesis in Shakespeare's Sonnets". Literature Compass 4 (3): 809–819. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2007.00433.x. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  8. ^ Hawkes, David (2001). "Sodomy, Usury and the Narrative of Shakespeare's Sonnets". Idols of the Marketplace: Idolatry and Commodity Fetishism in English Literature, 1580–1680: 96. 
  9. ^ Thurman, Christopher (2007). "Love's Usury, Poet's Debt: Borrowing and Mimesis in Shakespeare's Sonnets". Literature Compass 4 (3): 809–819. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2007.00433.x. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 

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